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IT is conducted a historical account of the region and the most relevant aspects in culture.

 

Characterization of the Region  |   History of Chaves
 

Ponte Romana
 

 

City of Chaves

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characterization |Top

 

Chaves is a city located in the Northern District of Portugal. The city is limited the north by Spain, east by the local authority of Vinhais, by south-east by Valpaços, by south-west by Vila Pouca de Aguiar and by west by Boticas and Montalegre. The valley of Chaves occupies an area of 25 km ² or 2500 hectares. It has around 8,5 Km of length and around 3 km of width. It goes from the Bridge of Arcossó even to the Village of Pereira de Veiga. It is dripping by the Rio Tâmega, as a matter of fact almost the whole valley is situated in his edge left and delimited by hills and mountain ranges. One faces the east with the Mountain range of the Brunheiro (919 meters) and with the northern ending of the Mountain range of the Padrela; the west borders on a series of small elevations of land, which serve of foundation to the Mountain range of Bustelo, which for his time, serves of buttress to the Mountain range of the Larouco and to the tableland of Barroso. North is the Mountain range of Mairos that expands for Spain reaching there 1083 meters and that is separated by the Ribeira d Oura, by a set of hills that stick to the Brunheiro montain, at the place of Pêto de Lagarelhos.

Almost the whole district is traditionally agricultural. Here there are cultivated potatoes, rye, vegetables, fruit trees  and wine. The Plain of Chaves, with his fertile grounds, crossed to the way for the Rio Tâmega and his grounds wetted by the waters of the Hot springs. One finds Chaves in a faulty seismic which crosses the north and centre of the country. This fault named Penacova-Régua-Verín, it is an active fault with movement of separation and a longitudinal extension of around five hundred kilometers, allowing its interconnection with other faults, the incident of mineral hydrogeological water spring.

The exploration of the  of Campilho waters and of Salus Vidago waters, in the Town of Vidago, and the exploration of the waters of the Hot springs or Bathhouses, bicarbonated, sodic, gaso-carbon, silicat and lightly fluoret what flow to a temperature of 73 °C, in the city of Chaves, endowing the District of hydric unique potentialities in the national context and the international projection.

The gastronomic relics of the region are the Easter cake (Folar), the cake (pasteis), the Ham (Presunto) and the "sausages" (enchidos).
Presunto e Folar de Chaves Pasteis de Chaves


 

 

 

 

 

History | Top

The District of Chaves presents, in the "corridor" Chaves – Vila Pouca de Aguiar, several evidences of prehistoric fixation.
Signs are registered, though in reduced number and in degraded state, of the eras daily pay - megalítica, like inscriptions in stones from granite and funeral monuments.

Regarding the contemporary people of the Age of the Copper and Bronze there are registered in the zone evidences of his occupation and fixation, forming villages castrejos, between them I Castrate the famous castro of Curalha or Outeiro Machado. They are generally located in places of elevated altitude, with good visibility and near to brooks. These characteristics were providing a bigger security.

The population nucleuses of the Castros of the region were receiving cultural influence of the coastal western zone and later, of the south of the peninsula and his Mediterranean culture, as well as of the Indo-European people that for the period from the Bronze Age  and from the Iron Age were bringing near.

Citânia de BoticasThere were found proofs of exploration of mining resources and ornamental pieces in gold and tin. In the metallurgy there are still registered utensils of domestic use, short swords and knives, in bronze and copper. The use from the iron is introduced by the arrival of the Romans. The tamaganos (in Latin tamagani) were the people Roman-daily pay what he was surviving in the edges of the river Tâmega, in the zone of Chaves and of Verin.

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According to indications of the Romans, the organization of the communities for this height happens in great called villages “ civitates “. Plínio enumerates 24 in the northern region, 10 of which in the zone of the tall Tâmega and involving regions registered in the Standard of the People in the Roman Bridge of Chaves.

There are not other great registers of the people that were living in the area. The people of the Northern District are known to be the Ártabro. Estrabão registers in the zone several groups belonging to people like the Turodos. These people raised in the right edge of the river Tâmega a citânia that was developed due to the fertile valley. According to register, one of the centres of more significant development was in Castro of Avelãs – Bragança, where they were finding the Zoelas.Banhos Romanos

The Roman invasion of the Iberian peninsula began in the context of the Second War Púnica (218 to. C.-201 B.C.), when the Roman legions, under the command of consul Cneio Cornélio Cipião, for there were moved tacticamente, in order to attack for the rearguard the powers of Cartago in the region.

After for the 100 year B.C. the Romans the north occupying regions more, and being of use I castrate it existent Pré-Roman, the town was occupied. Current Chaves was an important urbane conformable centre also the archaeological tracks witness it. From the year of 78 A.D. it became a thirst of local authority established by Tito Flávio Vespasiano, who called her Aquæ Flaviæ, in honor of the excellence of the thermal waters in which the region is abundant. To join two edges of the river, cut by the Roman road that was joining Bracara Augusta (current Braga) and Asturica Augusta (Astorga, today in Spain), was raised the Bridge of Trajano, dated from the century I. believes himself that it also would date of this period the first wall if what wrapped to village circumscribed to the historical centre of the current city, where the Mother church was raised.
 
Some arches of the Roman bridge were buried to effectuate the constructions that there were introduced. Today the amount can still read two inscriptions put in two columns and downstream from the Roman Bridge. The first one says that “ When There Is ruling Caesar Nerva Trajano Augusto Germanico Dacico, the very pontiff, in spite of being able tribunício, consul to 5th time, fatherPonte Romana of the homeland, the aquiflavienses negotiated of doing to his costs this bridge from stone ”; the Second one says When that “There Is ruling Caesar Vespasiano Augusto, the very pontiff, in spite of the fact that the tenth time being able tribunício, emperor to twentieth, father of the homeland, consul to ninth time, when Tito Vespasiano Caesar is ruling also, son of Augusto, pontiff, in spite of the fact that the eighth time is able tribunício, emperor to tenth Wednesday, consul to seventh (...) when the projudge bequeathed of Augusto I whitewash Calpetano Rancio Festive Querinal Valerio and be bequeathed of Augusto in the Legion Seventh, Decio Cornelio Meciano and attorney of the same Augusto, Lucio Arruncio Maximo, the Legion Seventh Gemina Feliz and ten cities, knowing: the Aquiflavienses, the Aobrigenses, the Bibalos, the Coelernes, the Equesos, the Interamnicos, the Limicos, the Nebisocos, the Quarquernos and the Tamaganos (...)”.

One of the reasons for which the Romans attached special importance to this region, was her of what Them Trás-os-Montes and Galiza were supplying annually around 6.000 kilograms of gold the Rome. That explains also the strong military presence (the seventh legion had seat in Chaves) to secure the exploration and the transport of so great wealth for the thirst of the Empire. The city and region were occupying place of distinction in the zones of Roman influence, which favored his economical and cultural development.

From the sec. III, with the decline of the Roman Empire and to raids of Barbarians, they put an end to the Roman colonization. The Suevos (german people), they reached the Iberian Peninsula in 409, together with other Germanic invaders – vandals, Alane and later the visigods – crossed the Pirenéus, and established a kingdom, with capital in Bracara Augusta, which, in his very extension, was including the totality of the province of the Galécia and the northern part of the Lusitânia, even to the Tagus.

The Suevos invaded, in 26 of July of 440, the city of Chaves (Aquæ Flaviæ). This Chaves - Igrejavilage had not the same strategic and economical importance for the Suevos that had with the Romans. The city had a decline and the wars between Remismundo and Frumário (Suevos), in the argument of the right to the throne, they took as a consequence the almost total destruction of the city, the victory of Frumário and the prison of the Bishop Idácio, (in 427 Bishop of Chaves is consecrated) when it was in the cathedral. Restore him to freedom. Then in 431, traveled to Gaul in front of a Hispano-Roman embassy to request the General Flavio Aecio (then the most important general in the Roman Empire and the West representing the imperial government in Gaul) helps against Suevos . Ten years later died in the town of Chaves. It was well known outside the time and even today, when speaking of Chaves, if the Bishop Idácio back to start it the history of the city. Because in addition to its religious influence, has a work written in the form of chronic, or the history of the most important events in the world, especially in the Iberian Peninsula, between 379 and 469.

 

In 585 the Visigodos destroyed the Suevos and captured his king, Andeca. The kingdom suevo was annexed by the Kingdom Visigodo of Toledo, but probably a certain degree of autonomy existed. By the chronicles of Afonso III, while Égica was governing the kingdom of the godos Vitiza it was governing the kingdom of the suevos.

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About 711 the Muslims invaded the peninsula for the south and quickly it reached the regions more north. In 714 the strength Omíadas invades from the Galiza to Chaves in a tenacious movement. The Muslim trops led by Muse enters for Chaves and takes the towns of Vila Real and Viseu. In the zone of the tall Tâmega and in the remaining bordering zones, the populations were leaving his places of residence and addressed for zone more to north. However the Arabs did not remain much time in the region, possibly due to the rural climate.

The nucleuses that remained more to north were beginning a period of reconquest of the lost lands. In 750 the Christian soldiers of Afonso I took , Oporto, Gaia and Viseu. In the turn for the Galiza they took the town of Chaves and carried out his partial reconstruction. Not being an effective capture it served to show the importance given to the region and the claim of taking it in definite.

In 868 was promoted the nobles dislocation to the region like count of Lugo, Odoário, and Vimara Peres that had conquered Oporto, to repopulate the region. In 888 it is conquered but subsequently lost again for the Moors.

In the century XI, D. Afonso III, Lion's king, rescued the city, ordered to rebuild, to populate and to enclose of walls. This work only has conclusion with Sancho I of Portugal. From this moment Trás-os-Montes it is a set of lands: Barroso, Keys, Montenegro, Aguiar and Panóias (even to the Douro). It was known Chaves how Xavias being to land of Vímara Gondezindes in 1070 passing for Fernão Mendes the Braganção in the reign of Afonso VI. This one included the village of Chaves in the dowry of the princess Teresa de Leão and Castela, when D. Henry de Borgonha (1093) married her with the count.

In 1129 the Moors do attacks again in the region and occupy again the region.

It was then about 1160 which Chaves it integrates the country, which was already Portugal, with the participation of legendary Ruy Lopes and Garcia Lopes, to the service of D. Afonso Henriques, been connected of the history of the land, starting to have the nickname of Chaves.Castelo de Santo Estevão - Chaves

In spite of the town of Chaves was not important what it demonstrated in the Roman time, his strategic location was a fountain of wish of possession. From another side of the edge of the Tâmega, a few Kms to amount of the river, the Santo Estêvão was developed. Pertaining to Lion and subsequently incorporated in the County. These lands passed again for Castela after the disaster of Badajoz but D. Sancho I it rehabilitated them. This one told to build the Santo Estêvão castle for defense and her made principal of Lieutenancy of Montenegro.  

In 1221 (1219) D. Afonso of Lion IX together with D. Teresa de Portugal occupies Chaves, this one, later re-captured for D. Afonso II in 1231, when the Agreement of Sabugal bushes is celebrated, between D. Sancho II and Fernando III, for what it is returned Chaves to Portugal.

 

 

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In 1250 Afonso X of Castela demand the right on the Castles of the Algarve and say it to the Pope Sancho II. The subject was resolved in Chaves (1253) with an agreement which document is not known and in which the share of the Algarve was predicted by two monarches, at the same time that concentrates the marriage of the king of Portugal (at the same time that is married by Matilde de Bolonha) by Beatriz, bastard daughter of the king of Castela. The frontiers are defined between two countries. In this year the marriage happened in Chaves of D. Afonso III with his niece D. Beatriz, daughter of Afonso X, the Wise man; it was the Bolonhês who granted to the village his 1st foral, to 15 of May of 1258.

 

Afonso III formed districts, between them it of Chaves. It told to populate also Vila Real, Montalegre and Mogadouro.

In 1312 D. Dinis rebuilt the Tower of Donjon in order that established a strong defense, the Chamber, the Chain and the church.

In 1350 Chaves it obtained a new Foral, being developed substancialmente for this time.

In the portuguese crisis of 1383-85 the military square of the town, influenced by the Castilians sided that they gave in the claim to the throne of Portugal. After D. John I became a king it proceeded to the reacquisition of the lost possessions. Keys it was one of them. After besieging the town and blockading the supply of water the king asked reinforcements to south to be able to take the fortification that was debated. The governor of the town Martim Gonçalves, asked for help a King of Castela, who thanked for him the dedication but there was not in conditions of helping due to the defeat in Aljubarrota. Martim Gonçalves left the Castle and addressed for the Galiza without which John I it had fastened it, as they had woken up.

The King John I donated the town D. Nun'Alvares Pereira (hero of Aljubarrota) happening after some insurrections so that the town was not donated, but the king did not give in. In 1409, to request of D Afonso his son, the king granted the frank market to the town of Chaves.

However, the population was not concentrating in the consolidated form and it was necessary to create the fugitives' refuge of Chaves in 1412, to fix population (for times this establishment of population was carried out by recluses who would receive pardon of the feathers in exchange for the fixation of a period of established time). D. Afonso, son of John I married with Dª Brites Pereira, doughter of D. Nun'Alvares Pereira. So, the son of the monarch became the 8th Count of Barcelos and 1st Duke of Bragança and received the town of Chaves and his Castle. He survived there much years and created the Congregation of the Cavalry of Saint John Batista. 1461 died in Chaves and there it was buried.

Chaves - Séc. XVI

In 1462 D. Afonso V donated Chaves and Monforte to a count of Autoguide – D. Martinho of Ataíde.

Already in the time of John II the alcaides were obliged giving donjon to a king, for treason of the duke of Bragança, act that offended the House of Bragança that was governing the region. The king moved to Chaves 1483 and promised the freedom of the town and the replacement to order.

In 1488 there was printed, probably in Chaves, a Portuguese version of the Sacramental one of Clemente Sánchez de Vercial, considered the first book printed in Portuguese language, and in 1489 and in the same city, the Treaty of Confissom was printed. The Sacramental is a work of pastoral one written by Clemente Sánchez de Vercial in 1423. It had a great expansion in the Iberian Peninsula, want written by hand and printed. When publications are known more than a ten between ends of the century XV and halved of the century XVI, height in which it was put in the Index of the prohibited books.The Sacramental thing is a detailed report of the form of life of the medieval man at all the moments, with subjects like the food, the familiar and social relations, the relation with the mystery of God and the sacred one, the work, the rest, the health, the disease and the sexuality, when a precious document is making it for the study of the medieval society.

In this way the typographical or mechanical impression, in Portuguese language it was entering in Portugal by Chaves. Only in the decade of ninety of the century XV books would be printed in Lisbon, in Oporto and in Shackle.

The Spanish poet Tirso de Molina wrote that the comedy Wool Gallega Mari Hernandez reports the adventures of the Portuguese D. Álvaro de Ataíde and his passion for D. Beatriz, Marchioness of Keys.

The house of Bragança would dominate again the territories, in the time of D. Jaime 4th Duke of Bragança.

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After the death of the king D. Sebastian, and still before raising Filipe I (Spain) to the throne of Portugal, the Count of Monterrey (Verin) D. Gaspar de Azevedo, negotiated of punishing some inhabitants of Chaves due to the support D. António Prior of the Crato. It invaded and occupied Chaves with an enormous army. I collapsed Lopes de Sousa, captain - mor of the town was imprisoned. Many inhabitants escaped and others adapted to the new order, for time of the Philippine dynasty.

In 1640 and after the restoration of the independence, military rows were restored in Chaves, Montalegre, Bragança and Monforte. The soldiers marched on Verín to take Monterrey but this action did not arrive to be brought into effect.

In the sec. XVII were mobilized for the region great military European estrategas in order that made the city a great defensive square of the north, after great destruction at the wars of the Restoration. The soldiers' great presence transformed the region providing some development. In 1662 one proceeded then to the construction of the Fort of Saint Francisco. one proceeded also to the construction of ramparts around the walls of the castle, though many people had not been finished. The Fort of Madalena was built in the left edge of the river to make all areas safe. Subsequently in 1664 the Fort of Saint Neutel was built to serve from support to that of Saint Francisco.

 

There was built the Convent of Saint John de Deus who subsequently was turned into Real Hospital. Here, the Real doctor of D. José I set up the course of Medicine that was even maintained on the French Invasions. The course had the duration of 5 years and was including several areas referring to the medicine. In 1789, in the reign of D. John V, the Church of S. John de Deus was built, in the customs of Madalena.

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In 9 of May of 1808, the prince regent of Portugal, in Brazil, was declaring null all the treaties of Portugal with France, declaring war on the Frenchmen and friendship to his ancient ally, the Great Britain. In Oporto, in 6 of June, one is going to open a period of popular revolts against the French occupation, in whose result the populations of Chaves, Miranda, Tower of Moncorvo, Ruivães, between others, answered Real Town immediately to the call. Under the command of lieutenant-general Sepúlveda the movement of Trás-os-Montes returned to Oporto, where there was nominated the Provisional Board of the Supreme Government of the Kingdom (1808), under the command of the bishop of Oporto, D. António de Castro.

While in Portugal one was fighting against the French occupation, Napoleão was maintaining in the Spanish throne his brother José Bonaparte. The Spaniards, in revolt against the French usurpers, obtain support of the British troops parked in the north of Portugal. Under the command of John Moore, the Britons pass the frontier in the beginning of 1809, to be defeated, in the Corunha, by the Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult. Obliged withdrawing, they left to overdraft the frontier with Portugal, allowing the Soult, to invade the country for the frontier of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (Chaves) in March of 1809, advancing even to the city of Oporto, city what they occupied to 24 of this month, fixing frontier in the river Douro. In May of the same year, troops British-Portuguese under the command of General Arthur Wellesley and of the commander in chief the Marshal William Carr Beresford, won the called battle of the Douro, recapturing the city of Oporto (29 of May) and expelling the invader, who was removed for the Galiza. Following to the south, the troops of Wellesley locked the battle of Talavera in Spanish territory and returned to Portugal.

The Convention of Chaves is the official act that makes that mark, after several war episodes in the century XIX in Chaves and the combat of Ruivães, the end of the Chartist revolt of 1837, more known by Revolt of the Marshals. The Convention of Chaves was celebrated to 20 of September of 1837 and signed to 7 of October of 1837, being the troops risen up at the arrangement of the government. The officials in revolt would maintain his posts, but they would be paid in accordance with the tariff of 1719. The chiefs of the revolt, marshal Saldanha, duke of the Terceira island, duke of Palmela, José da Silva Carvalho and Mouzinho de Albuquerque leave the country.

In Keys one braked to 8 of July of 1912, the combat between the monarchistic strength of Paiva Couceiro and those of the republican government led by colonel Ribeiro de Carvalho, from whom there resulted the end of the 1st monarchistic raid.

In 1921 is inaugurated the line of railroad Régua-Chaves.

It is lifted up Chaves to the category of city in 12 of March of 1929, for decree of the president of the republic Marshal Carmona.

Termas de Chaves

Termal waters of Chaves

 

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history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean. history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean.

history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean. history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean.

history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean. history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean.

history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean. history  Portugal, enigmas, descoveries, Colombus, sail, ancient, caravel, maps, ocean.