The Prince Henry, Duke of Viseu (Porto, March 4, 1394 -
November 13, 1460).
Prince Henry was one of the most important figures of the Discoveries,
being also known in history as Infante de Sagres or Navigator.
In August 1415 participated in the conquest of Ceuta, in North African
coast near the Strait of Gibraltar. Portugal took control of sea lanes
of trade between the Atlantic and the Levant.
On May 25, 1420, D. Henry was appointed head of the Order of Christ,
successor to the Knights Templar, a position he would hold until the end
During his lifetime Portugal discovered and colonized,
the Atlantic islands and the African coast to Serra Leone. The Infante
also support the scientific development and industry.
King John II/ Rei Dom João II
D. John II of Portugal (Lisbon, May 3, 1455 - Alvor, 25 October 1495).
Also called The Perfect Prince, John II was a great supporter of the
Atlantic exploration started by his great-grandfather Henry. The
Portuguese discoveries will be your government priority, and the search
for the sea route to India. During his reign could be enormous
achievement that led to the discovery of the passage between the
Atlantic and Indian Ocean. In his time,portuguese also traveled the
American continent, not a priority for King, demonstrated by the fact
that Christopher Columbus did not achieve for your service to America to
Portugal, becouse these lands were already known to the Portuguese, and
knowing that that would not be India.
He signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal and safeguarded for the
passage to the South Atlantic Ocean and the territory of Brazil,
emphasizing the expansion of the navigation from the Portuguese Catholic
(1390 — Funchal, 21 Nov 1471)
It was a Portuguese nobleman and a knight of the House of Prince Henry.
Together with Tristan Vaz Teixeira acknowledged the archipelago of
Madeira in 1418, assuming they have been drawn to the island of Porto
Santo as they prepared to explore the coast of Africa and achieve
Guinea, on a trip at the behest of Prince.
It was the first to sail beyond Cape Bojador, in 1434, dissipating the
superstitious terror of the end of the world, which inspired this
promontory. thus began the era of "great discoveries" or "Age of
Sended by D. John II, realized two voyages of discovery of the west
coast of Africa between 1482 and 1486. Reached the mouth of the Zaire
and moved to the interior of the river, leaving an entry, confirming
their arrival at the cataracts Ielala, near Matadi. Established the
first relations with the Kingdom of Congo. Introduced the use of
patterns of stone, instead of wooden crosses to mark the Portuguese
presence in the areas discovered.
Barthlomew Diaz / Bartolomeu Dias
1450 — 29 de May, 1500)
Experienced sailor, the first to reach the Cape of Good Hope (South
Africa), as he called it in 1488 (so called because there found great
winds and storms), one of the most important events in the history of
sailing ships. The expedition left Lisbon in August 1487 the board took
two black men and four black wemen, captured by Diogo Cao in the West
African coast. Well fed and clothed, will be dropped on the east coast
to witness those with populations of those regions to goodness and
greatness of the Portuguese, while gathering information about the
kingdom of Prester John, the "christian king of East". In December
reached the coast of Namibia today, the most southerly point mapped by
the expedition of Diogo Cao Further south, first discovered the Angra
dos Ilheus, being robbed, then by a violent storm. Thirteen days later
searched the coast, finding just the sea. Building on the Antarctic
winds that blow strongly in the South Atlantic, sailed north, marking
the shore, which then had the east-west and north, now east of the Cape
of Good Hope, which was renamed by the Portuguese king D . John II,
ensuring the hope of reaching India, to buy the much needed spices and
other luxury items.
João Vaz Côrte-Real
Portuguese navigator of the fifteenth century linked to the discovery of
Newfoundland, about the year 1472. In addition to this expedition,
Corte-Real also organized other trips that have taken to the coast of
North America and explore the banks of the Hudson and St. Lawrence to
Canada and the Labrador Peninsula.
In 1474 he was appointed Captain of Angra (title usually given after the
valuable discoveries) and from 1483, also the island of St. Jorge. Their
three children, all sailors bold, Gaspar Corte-Real, Miguel Corte-Real,
Vasco Anes Corte-Real, continued the spirit of adventure his father and
the first two disappeared after maritime expeditions in 1501 and 1502
Duarte Pacheco Pereira
Renowned geographer and cosmographer, on June 7, 1494 signed the
"quality of continuous home of Lord King of Portugal", the Treaty of
In 1498 D. Manuel I commissioned him to a secret expedition, organized
with the objective to recognize the areas beyond the Line of Tordesillas
expedition that extends from the Cape Verde archipelago, is believed to
have culminated with the discovery of Brazil, at some point on the coast
of Maranhao and Para, between the months of November and December of
that year. From there would have followed the north coast, reaching the
mouth of the Amazon River and the island of Marajo.
Regarding the discovery of Brazil or the possible exploitation of the
West Indies and parts of North America, given the revelations contained
in the cartographic Cantino planisphere, the author presents information
in the second chapter of the first part. Briefly, the passage relates:
"As the third year of your reign of the year of our
Lord one thousand four hundred and ninety-eight, where in your Highness
send to discover the western part, going beyond the grandeur of the sea
ocean, where it is found and navigated a large tam land, with many large
islands adjacent to it and is heavily populated. dilates both his
greatness and runs very long life, that of an art or the other has not
been seen or known the end and out of it. is finding it very thin and
with Brazil many other things that the vessels in these realms is
It is thus the first portuguese navigational chart to mention the coast
of Brazil and the abundance of Brazil wood (Caesalpinia echinata). In
the South Atlantic, between the oceanic islands, has, with its "ladezas"
(latitudes) known at the time:
The Isle of Sam Lloyd (island of Fernando de Noronha); d'Acens Island
(island of Trinidad), The island of St. Crara (Santana Island, off the
coast of Macae) and; cable Frio.
In 1503 he commanded the ship (nau) Espirito Santo, a
member of the squadron of Afonso de Albuquerque to India. Ali manned the
Fort Kochi with 150 men and some Indians where he maintained the
victorious siege of Zamorin of Calicut which had 50,000 men. Having held
the offices of Captain-General of the Navy of Calicut and Viceroy and
Governor of Malabar in India, returned to Lisbon in 1505 when it was
received in great triumph. In Lisbon and everywhere his deeds in India
were released and an account of them was sent to the Pope and other
kings of Christendom. It was like a sort of international hero, this
year started the drafting of Esmeraldo de situ orbis, a work he stopped
in early 1508.
Was charged by the sovereign to hunt Mondragon French privateer which
operated between the Azores and the Portuguese coast, where they
attacked the ships coming from India. Duarte Pacheco locates it in 1509,
off Cape Finisterre, where the defeated and captured.
(Sines, 1469 — Cochim, Índia, December 24 of 1524)
Portuguese navigator and explorer. In the Age of Discovery, stood out
for being the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe
to India, the longest ocean voyage so far held more than one complete
circuit around the world at the equator. At the end of life was,
briefly, governor of Portuguese India with the title of viceroy.
In 1492, King John II of Portugal sent Vasco Gama to the port of
Setubal, just south of Lisbon and the Algarve to capture French vessels
in retaliation for vandalism done in peacetime against Portuguese
shipping - a task that Vasco da Gama performed quickly and efficiently.
Manuel I of Portugal entrusted Vasco da Gama the post of Captain-General
of the fleet, a Saturday, July 8, 1497, set sail from Belém on demand in
It was essentially an exploratory expedition that took letters of King
Manuel I to the realms to visit, to put standards and had been fitted by
Bartholomew Dias with some products that had proved useful in his
travels, for exchanges with local businesses.
(Belmonte, 1467 ou 1468 — Santarém, 1520 ou 1526)
Was a nobleman and a Portuguese navigator, commander of the second sea
voyage from Europe to India, travel when it was discovered officially
Brazil, April 22, 1500.
This was the best equipped army ships of the fifteenth century, composed
of ten naus (naos) and three caravels, carrying 1200 to 1500 men,
including officials, soldiers and religious. It was formed by navigators
like Bartolomeu Dias and Nicolau Coelho, having left Lisbon on 9 March
1500, after Mass in the chapel of Restelo, which attended the King and
the entire court.
On 22 April, after forty-three-day trip, taking away from the African
coast, saw the Monte Pascoal on the southern coast of Bahia. The next
day, there was the initial contact with the natives. On April 24, moved
along the coast to the north in search of shelter, based on current Bay
Santa Cruz Cabrália the outskirts of Porto Seguro, where he remained
until May 2.
took on the name of the Portuguese Crown, the new land, which they named
"Vera Cruz", and sent one of the smaller vessels to the report,
including the Letter of Pero Vaz de Caminha, back to the kingdom.
Then resumed the route of Vasco da Gama towards the Indies.
(Alhandra, 1453 — December 16 of 1515)
Noble, military and the second governor of Portuguese India whose
military and political actions were instrumental in the establishment of
the Portuguese empire in the Indian Ocean.
Afonso de Albuquerque is recognized as a military genius on its
successful expansion strategy: searched closing all passages to the
Indian ship - the Atlantic, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Pacific - by
building a chain of fortresses at key points and turning this ocean in a
mare clausum Portuguese, overriding the power of the Ottomans, Arabs and
their Indian allies. It was emphasized both by the ferocity in battle
and by many diplomatic contacts he has established. Shortly before his
death he was awarded the title of viceroy and "Duke of Goa" by King
Manuel I, who never named, being the first Portuguese to receive a title
from overseas and the first Duke born out of the royal family. Became
known as the Great, Caesar of the East, Lion of the Seas, the Portuguese
Terribil and Mars.
His most famous battle was the Battle of Diu to the Portuguese Empire
defeated a combined fleet of Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Ottoman
Empire, Calicut and the Sultan of Gujarat.
(Alandroal, 1465 — Alandroal, 1530)
Portuguese nobleman who landed first in Malacca in 1509, before the
conquest in 1511 by Afonso de Albuquerque. Was governor of India from
1518 to 1522.
The service of D. Manuel I, was sent to reconnoiter the coast of
Madagascar (then named St. Lawrence Island) and their commercial
potential, bringing then in India. Also during this trip, which lasted
for several years, arrived in Sumatra and Pacem, which raised standards
with the Portuguese arms. On other trips passed through Ceuta, Asilah,
Alcácer Ceguer, Diu and Goa, repairing fortresses in different spots.
In 1509, shortly before Afonso de Albuquerque took office as governor of
India, Lopes de Sequeira led the first Portuguese fleet to reach
Malacca. Getting the permission of the local sultan arrived with five
ships to trade, leading credentials and present. Initially well
received, landed men and goods, but not yet reached an agreement to
establish a factory, for the Gujarat, the Muslim merchant sites,
objected to the support of Bendahara. Seen as an intrusion on trade
between the Straits of Malacca and the Indonesian islands, was a planned
attempt to destroy the expedition. Diogo Lopes de Sequeira quickly
abandoned the coast with three ships, leaving behind two ships burned,
several low and nineteen prisoners. Afonso de Albuquerque, asked to
release the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511. Diogo Lopes de
Sequeira was appointed governor of India from 1518 to 1522, a position
he has played so questionable, enriching abused. In 1524, already under
D. John III, attended the Conference of Elvas and Badajoz where Portugal
would play the Moluccas problem with Castile, the agreed demarcation of
the east line of the Treaty of Tordesillas, where, thanks to the
difficult relationship with the king, maybe he has taken a position
favorable to the Spanish.
Has been part of the first Portuguese expedition that succeeding in
Japan, in 1543, is recognized as one of those responsible for the
introduction of firearms in the country.
In 1537 she traveled to India, to meet his two brothers. According to
the reports of his work Pilgrimage, "was during an expedition to the Red
Sea in 1538, Mendes Pinto participated in naval warfare with the
Ottomans, where he was taken prisoner and sold to a Greek and that a Jew
who took him to Hormuz, where he was rescued by the Portuguese.
He accompanied Pedro de Faria to Mallaca, where did the starting point
for his adventures, having traveled for 21 accident years, the coasts of
Burma, Siam, the Sunda Islands, Moluccas, China and Japan one of his
trips to this country has S. Francis Xavier and influenced by his
personality, decided to join the Society of Jesus and promote a Jesuit
mission in Japan
In 1554, after releasing their slaves, go to Japan as a novice of the
Society of Jesus and as an ambassador of the viceroy D. Afonso de
Noronha from the daimyo of Bungo. This trip was a disappointment for
him, both as regards the conduct of his companion, both as regards the
conduct of the Company. Disgusted, he left the novitiate and returned to
With the help of former governor of India Francisco Barreto, managed to
find proof of the sacrifices for their country, which gave him the right
to a pension, he never received. Disillusioned, he went to Valley Rosal,
in Almada, where he remained until his death and where he wrote, between
1570 and 1578, the work left us, his inimitable Pilgrimage. This would
only be published 20 years after the author's death, fearing that the
original has been changed which would not be outside the Jesuits.
Fernandes represented by the charts back in Southwest Greenland and
northwestern North America around 1498 and told about them in Europe. It
is believed that the areas were called the island of Labrador land and
Labrador, respectively. He was given the title of ownership of many
lands he discovered and was considered the first owner of land in
Pero de Barcelos, sometimes referred to as Pedro de Barcelos was a
Portuguese navigator who explored the coasts of North America in the
fifteenth / sixteenth century. With John Fernandes Labrador, were the
first to sight the coast of Labrador in 1492.
( - Ormuz, 1530) was a Portuguese nobleman and explorer.
It awarded the Portuguese discovery of Australia, among other feats.
Went to the East in the fleet of 14 ships which, under the command of
Jorge de Albuquerque, left Lisbon on April 23, 1519. He commanded the
ship "Graça/Grace" which, wintering grounds, only reached India in 1520.
The "List of ships serving in India," confirms that he was in Goa, the
capital of Portuguese India in 1521. The same source indicates the
departure of Mendoza in an expedition to the discovery of so-called
"Island of Gold":
The trip was kept secret at the time, since this operation would violate
the provisions of the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), for which the region
(and their wealth) would be in the areas of Spain. One of these vessels
can be called "Mahogany Ship" (in Portuguese, "mahogany ship"), as is
known in Australian folklore, which would have wrecked near Warrnambool,
(1565 - 1614), was a Portuguese navigator and explorer,
being among the first Europeans to sail the seas of Oceania.
Queiroz was born in Evora, Portugal. As a young man came to serve the
Philippine Dynasty, when the King of Portugal was both the King of
Spain. Serving the crown and the Spanish navy, he became an experienced
sailor and navigator. In 1595, he served as pilot of Alvaro de Mendana
de Neira in their explorations of the southwestern Pacific Ocean and,
after his death, led to the only remaining ship of the expedition to the
A devout Catholic, Quirós visited Rome in 1600, where he obtained the
support of Pope Clement VIII for further explorations. He went to Peru
in 1603 with the intention of finding Terra Australis, the mythical
"great south land, in order to claim it for the Spanish crown and the
Church. Commanding three ships, San Pedro y Paulo, San Pedro and Los
Tres Reyes, left Callao, Peru's major port, on December 21, 1605, with
300 crew and soldiers.
On 22 January 1606, passed the Isle of the Incarnation, arrowhead on the
island Sagitaria, now Tahiti, on 10 February, and discovered on April 7,
Toumako Island, where the native King Tamay they provided important
On April 25, 1606, or perhaps as early as May, the expedition reached
the islands later called the New Hebrides and now the independent nation
of Vanuatu. Quirós landed on a large island that is considered part of
the southern continent was looking for, that Terra Australis or
Australia of the Holy Spirit. The island, one of the largest of the
archipelago of Vanuatu, has now called Espiritu Santo. Here he founded a
colony which he called New Jerusalem. The religious fervor of Quirós him
to found a new Order of Chivalry, the Knights of the Holy Spirit.
However, the colony was to be quickly abandoned due to the hostility of
the natives and disagreements among the crew.
After a few weeks, Quirós put to sea again. Due to bad weather, just
became separated from the other ships and was unable, or so he later
said, to return to shore. He then sailed to Acapulco, Mexico, where he
arrived in November 1606. His right arm in charge, also the Portuguese
Luís Vaz de Torres, after searching in vain Queiroz left the island of
Espiritu Santo and headed to Manila where he finally came through the
Certainly one of the most popular sailor ever, this
"Transmontano", sailed the world by his country, Portugal, before
providing their services to the king of Spain. On 20 October 1517,
joining her brothers later Faleiro, Rui and Francisco, who assist in
technical problems in navigation, developing a plan for a navigation
west and to try to prove that the Moluccas were out of Portuguese
hemisphere defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas (which was not true).
With a fleet of five ships. Equipped with a crew of 265 men, ships, with
Ferdinand Magellan by chief captain, set sail from San Lúcar Barremeda
on September 20, 1519. That year a small fleet arrive to Rio de Janeiro,
next month enters the Rio de la Plata, at the end of March 1520 it
entered the strait will be the name of the Portuguese navigator. During
the trip have been flooding incidents, the conspiracies, the
insubordination - always eradicated by the Captain-General - an
exhausted crew and suspicious about the failure of the enterprise.
Finally, in November 1520 the ships entering the Pacific Ocean, and a
few months later (April 1521) Ferdinand Magellan is killed in a skirmish
on the island of Cebu (Philippines). The fleet is now reduced to two
ships. One of them, the ship "Victoria", led by Spanish Sebastian
Delcano. He then follows the route of the cable, looking for food in
Cape Verde. Laid bare by the Portuguese, the ship is immediately to San
Lucar de Barremeda, where
is September 6, 1522 with a crew of only 18 men.
Cabrilho, also known as Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo was a Portuguese
navigator and explorer of the sixteenth century.
Serving the Spanish Crown made a major maritime explorations in the
Pacific Ocean (west coast of the U.S. current) and land in North
America, participating in the conquest of the Aztec capital of
Tenochtitlan, the Spanish conqueror Hernan Cortes in 1521, also
participated with Pedro de Alvarado and more than 300 European conquest
of the territories that today comprise the Honduras, Guatemala and San
Salvador, between 1523 and 1535, helping to found Oaxaca (one of 31
states of Mexico).
At the service of Spain in June in the year 1542, dropped anchor John
Roberts de Navidad, on the west coast of Mexico, moving to the north,
and reached three months after the Bay of San Diego, becoming the first
European to land in what is now the State of California.
As these cases when certain professionals reach high
merits in the service of other nationalities, these same nationalities
for various reasons, including patriotism, is entered in the respective
historiographies as their children. It was precisely this situation that
befell the said Portuguese navigator, John Solis, only enlightened by
the works of Don José Toribio Medina, the end of the century. XIX
(1897), to work with Juan Diaz de Solis, and Luciano Pereira da Silva,
the basis of studies and publications brought to light, especially for
Eugene's Corner, in the publication in 1907 of a letter dated 1512 of
King D. Manuel for the "Catholic King", D. Fernando, in pointing to the
unequivocal Portuguese João Dias de Solis, after nearly 400 years of
After numerous trips to India, went to the New World with
interest of scientific research and exploration and mapping Southern
Cone of South America was joined in 1508 to Vicente Yáñez Pinzón,
brother of Martin Alonso Pinzón. In 1512 started operating and the River
Plate, unknown, discovering and exploring the adjacent territories.
Survivors of the expedition headed by Juan Díaz de Solís named the River
Plate estuary of Rio de Solís.
The map drawn from the data of Diaz de Solis, was instrumental in the
journey of Ferdinand Magellan.
After the death of Amerigo Vespucci, Díaz de Solís was who would occupy
the position due to pilot Mor boating experience as pilot of the House
of Portugal in India.
It is considered the discoverer of Uruguay.
have been known as Portuguese navigator and explorer, who in the service
of the Dutch navy, have been responsible for the first crossing of the
passage of the Northeast, the East-West direction, linking Japan to
Portugal, carried out between 1660 and 1662.
A report of a French diplomat and spy in Portugal, the Seigneur de La
Madelène (or Madeleine), Captain David Melgueiro at the command of a
Dutch ship "The Eternal Father", have left Kagoshima, Japan, on 14 March
1660, having headed up north, entering the Arctic Ocean in what is now
the Bering Strait (then called the Strait of Aniam) covered northern
latitudes such as 84 ° N, sighting the Svalbard archipelago, where down
its route to the south, past the coast of Scotland and Ireland, and
finally arrived at the mouth of the Douro, about 1662. According to La
Madelène, that's when - following a testimony of a sailor who
accompanied Le Havre Melgueiro until the end of his life - have died
Portuguese explorer in 1673.
Estêvão Gomes (1483 —
1538) a Portuguese navigator of the sixteenth
century that made important maritime explorations in the service of the
It was one of the thirty five pilots who participated on the
first circumnavigation trip , from 1519 to 1522, led by Ferdinand
Stephen Gomes has been named by the Spanish King, later Emperor Charles
V, to find the oceanic Northwest Passage to Asian trade, steeped in from
La Coruna (Spain) in 1524, sailing towards Newfoundland (Canada) and
from there then to Nova Scotia (Canada), exploring the east coast of the
On this trip the Portuguese navigator Stephen Gomes noted on map the
coastline of Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Manhattan
(Hudson River), New Jersey and Delaware, and even to Florida.
Luís Vaz de Torres (Portugal, c. 1565 - Philippines,
c.1610 to 1613), also spelled Luis Vaez de Torres was a Portuguese
maritime explorer who, working for the Spanish crown, first reported the
existence of a strait between New Guinea and Australia, the Torres
At the end of 1605, historical records indicate his appointment as
second in command of an expedition to the Pacific led by Pedro Fernández
de Queirós. In December 1605, the expedition sailed from Callao in Peru,
with Torres in command of San Pedro. In May 1606 they reached the
islands Queirós called Australia of the Holy Spirit, now Vanuatu. While
exploring the islands, the boat of Queiroz had problems and, eventually
returning to Mexico. Torres, I trust they were lost at sea, decided to
complete the expedition as scheduled, according to Manila via the
Moluccas. In June 1606, is contrary winds along the north coast of New
Guinea, then go to the south, passing through the narrow 150 km wide,
dotted with islands, which now bears his name. Most probably saw the
Australian coast, but left no record of it. On October 27, after
exploring several islands of the Strait, finally reaches the end of New
Guinea, and to turn to Manila, which arrives on 22 May 1607, after
stopping in some islands in the path.
Torres apparently spent the rest of his days in the Philippines. He left
an account of his journey, the geographer Alexander Dalrymple in 1759
and saw it was he who first called the passage of the Torres Strait.
Rodriguez Cermeño em espanhol, ou
Sebastião Rodrigues Soromenho em português.
It was a Portuguese navigator of the sixteenth century, highlighted by
his trip taken along the California coast in the years 1594-1595, at the
behest of King Philip II of Spain, with the express purpose of finding
points of support vessels route Manila. In undertaking this expedition,
the sailor places its name from the Portuguese who served in the armed
Castillian and contributed to the discovery of the Pacific and the
survey and registration of the back of Latin America, contributing
decisively the definition of the routes in the Pacific XVI.
Presumed to be native of the town of Sesimbra, Portugal, as in his will
in writing that appeared donated half of his property to the Santa Casa
da Misericordia of this village.
There is the possibility of the name California was given the American
California by this navigator. There in Sesimbra, Portugal, a beach