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1st Fase of Discoveries period  1415 - 1470                   Introduction - 2nd Fase - 3rd Fase - 4th Fase

 

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It is considered that the beginning of the Portuguese expansion happened in the 1415, when John I, bringing together 250 ships and 12000 men, conquered Ceuta in Africa. However, before this date Portuguese travels happened in the Atlantic, when reached the Canárias in 1336. In 1353 the Treaty of Windsor is signed with England so that the Portuguese fishermen could fish in the English waters. In 1370 the Stock Exchange of Sea Insurances is created and in 1387 there are news of the Algarve merchants establishment  in Bruges.

 

The motivations of Portugal to Atlantic explorations were several. Portugal, always pressed by Castela (Spain), had to turn for the Atlantic to expand and to become superior to the rival of ever. The intention on propagat Christian faith beyond the "Algarves", the economical advantage of its occupation, as well as the commerce with the African people, took Portugal to try to occupy the principal African squares in the northwestern coast. However, after the conquest of Ceuta, only in 1458 another African square would be conquered. In this interval privilege was given to the exploration of the African coast. It was colonized the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. The major achievement was the passage of the Bojador Cape (called end of the world), in 1424 by the navigator Gil Eanes. By that moment was a continuous exploration of the African coast, initiated business processes and some fortresses were built. The Portuguese Caravel is created, an ideal vessel for the coastal exploration and also open sea, and even the navigation against unfavorable winds. One of the most advantageous techniques was to a discovery of the " turn of the Mine ", what was consisting of a return to Portugal from the coast of Mina (Ghana), entering on the Atlantic Ocean, reaching the the sargassos sea (close to America), and carrying out then the travel for east. In this period the Prince D. Henry receives from Rome the Romanus Pontifex, in which the Portugueses acquire all the rights of the conquered and discovered lands. In 1460 the Prince D. Henry dies, the great strategist of the discoveries. Portugal had reached Liberia and the archipelago of Cape Verde and conquered Ceuta, Alcácer-Ceguer/El Qsar es Seghir (Morocco). The king D. Afonso V, in 1469, hands over the discoveries, for five years, to a merchant of the city of Lisbon, Fernão Gomes, with the condition of this, to discover 100 leagues yearly. However, many and many travels were made by independent portuguese sailors...

 

 

Scholl of Sagres

 

 

Caravel

 

Chronology of events 1st Phase of the period of Discoveries

 

1412: First expeditions to the African coast and islands Canárias ordered by the Prince D. Henry.(1)

 

1415: Conquest of Ceuta (Morocco). A Portuguese squad of 250 ships with 12.000 men takes the city of Ceuta.(2)

 

1418 - Rediscovery of the archipelago of the Madeira for John Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão vaz Teixeira.(3)

 

1427: Discovery of the Azores (EM), possibly in the return of a travel by the wide sea, the pilot Diogo de Silves disembarks in Saint Maria, whose colonization and settlement begins in 1431 for Gonçalo Velho Cabral.(4)

 

1434: Passage of the End Bojador Cape (EM). Considered on the time as the limit of the navigable seas, this famous promontory it is exceeded by the Portuguese navigator Gil Eanes.(5)

 

1435: Gil Eanes and Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia discovered Angra dos Ruivos (Mauritania). (EMn).(6) 

 

1437: Disaster of Tânger. An attempt of the Portugueses to extend his power in Morocco with the conquest of this square, results in serious military defeat.

 

 

1st Fase - Exploration and ocupation of African Coast.

 

 

1441: Nuno Tristão and Gonçalo Afonso reach the Cape White End (Mauritania) (EMn).(7)

 

1443: Nuno Tristão penetrates in the Gulf of Arguim (Mauritania) (EMn). Construction of the Management in 1455, was occupied by the Dutchmen in 1633.(8)

 

1444: Dinis Dias reaches the Cape Verde (Mauritania) (EMn).(9)

 

1445: Álvaro Fernandes passed for south of the Cape Verde and reached the End of the Masts.

 

1446: Álvaro Fernandes reached the northern part of current Guinea-Bissau (EMn).(10)

 

1448: In this year seems to have been an expedition to the Western Atlantic, it is demonstrated by a letter of André Bianco. (11)

 

1452: Discovery of the islands of the Flores and of the Corvo for the Portuguese navigator Diogo de Teive (EM).(12)

 

Island of Gorée (Senegal) - Portuguese Navigators, the first Europeans to reach the region, established a village in Gorée, a small island in front of Dacar.

 

Ziguinchor is a city of Senegal, capital of the region with the same name. It is located in the south of the country in the region called Casamança. It was established by the Portuguese in 1645, having been given up to France in 1888. His name results of " I arrived and they cry ".

 

1458: Discovery of the first islands of the archipelago of Cape Verde (IN) for the navigator Diogo Gomes and Luís Cadamosto, a venezian to the service of the Prince. Colonization in 1462 (1462-1975).(13)

 

1458 - Conquest of Alcácer-Ceguer/El Qsar es Seghir (Morocco) (1458-1550). (14)

 

1460 - Serra Leone - Discovered by the Portuguese navigator Pedro de Sintra

 

1461 - The Portuguese navigator  Peter de Sintra reached the north of the current coast of Liberia.

 

 

1462 - Tânger (1471-1662) is abandoned by the Muslims and occupied by the Portuguese troops. Given up to England in 1662.(16)

 

1470 - a group of Portugueses disembarked and began to negotiate with the King of "Elmina" - Where futurely would build the Castle of Saint Jorge da Mina. (Ghana).(17)

 

 

Top - Introduction - 2nd Fase - 3rd Fase - 4th Fase

 

 

 

   

 

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