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3rd Fase of Discoveries period de  1488 - 1510           Introduction - 1st Fase - 2nd Fase - 4th Fase

 

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From the passage of the End of the Good hope, in 1488, there was a period of considerable time (10 years), even to the travel that would accomplish the arrival to India in 1498. This space of time from the discovery of the passage to the arrival is not even completely justified.

 One believes that before an effective travel to India, the Portuguese rulers were, on a side, joining more information on the Orient, and for other, when the west is recognizing lands to try to divert the attention of the Castilians.

Meantime, Columbus to the service of the Castilians, discovers lands the west (unknown or perhaps not). After a year of negotiations, in 1494 the Treaty of Tordesilhas is prepared between Portugal and Spain, in which Spain keeps the uncovered lands 370 miles West of Cape Verde, and Portugal the lands to the other side of same marking. King (João II) John II dies in 1495 and D. Manuel I assumes functions. There are registered Portuguese travels (done not not recognized officially) to the American coast in the decade of 1480, which gets a beating believing that in fact the Portugueses wanted to have the confirmation that those lands they were belonging.

 In 1497 King Manuel organize an expedition, when the famous Portuguese ships, Naus, were already integrated, it sends Vasco da Gama to real India. For the first time two oceans are tied by the south hemisphere, and it is proved (when though years were only confirmed later) that the lands discovered to west by the Spain, are not the India.

Integrated the zone of the Portuguese influence established by the Treaty of Tordesilhas, the lands of the South America (Brazil), they were finally demanded for Portugal by Peter Álvares Cabral, 1500. However, in the next years there were little the official measures taken in these lands, as soon as India was discovered, and when the objective of the Portuguese is this in fact from the century xv.

In the plan cientific, there are developed " kits " of ships, which taken of Lisbon, might be mounted in a new ship in 12 days. The round caravel appears, more vocacionated  for military control.

From 1500 the Portugueses start to try to establish his position of power in the Indian Ocean, consolidating also his position in the north of Africa. It conquers in the orient; Mascate (Oman), Melinde (Kenya), Cochim (India), Zanzibar (India), Coulão (India), Cananor (India), Quíloa (Tanzania), Bandar Abbas (Iran), Island of Mozambique. Establish some villages in the north of Africa and it conquers also Santa Cruz of the End of Gué/Agadir (Morocco). But the Indian Ocean was governed by the Turkish and Portugal still had not imposed his objectives. In 1509 it locks the Battle of Diu between Portugal and a joint fleet of the Sultanato Burji of Egypt, Turkish Empire, Calecute, and the Sultan of Gujarat. Portugal goes out victoriously and starts to dominate the Indian Ocean.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chronology of events 3rd Phase of the period of Discoveries

 

1492: For this time a Portuguese expedition happens to the Indian Ocean, on the ground, precursor of the travel of Vasco da Gama.

 

1494: Duarte Pacheco Pereira, one of the negotiators of the Treaty of Tordesilhas, calculates, with inferior mistake to 4 %, the length of the degree of the meridian in 18 leagues, in other words 106,56 Km or 57,5 nautical miles.

 

 

3rd Fase - Reach India and to dominate the Indian Ocean.

 

1495: Travel of the navigators João Fernandes, the Lavrador and Pêro de Barcelos to Greenland and " Lavrador Land ".(18)

 

1498: Sea way for India (EM). Vasco da Gama completes the discovery of the sea way for India, going for the South round the African continent. In this travel time, lands of Mozambique were reached by sea for first, Mombaça (Kenya), Melinde (Kenya), Laquedivas and Calecute in India.(24)

 

1498: Travel of Duarte Pacheco Pereira to the South Atlantic and exploration of the American coast to the north of the Amazon river.

 

1498 - Mozambique - possession (1498-1975).

 

Laquedivas (India) - The Portugueses conquered it in 1498, but, in 1545, the inhabitants of the island revolted against the Portugueses and managed to expel them.(24O)

 

February of 1500: Official discovery of Brazil. When it left from Lisbon of the squad of Peter Álvares Cabral bound for India there to establish commercial relations with the local kingdoms.(25) 

 

1500 - Conquest of Mascate (Oman) - Portuguese possession subordinated to a Vice-king of Goa (1500-1650). ).(26)

 

1500 - Conquiest of Melinde (Quénia) - Portuguese Factory (1500-1630).(27)

 

1501- Nicolau Coelho explores the Brazilian coast up to 25 degreas South..(25A)

 

1500/1502: Travels to the Newfoundland of the brothers Gaspar and Miguel Corte Real who disappear respectively in 1501 and 1502. Miguel seems what would be still alive in 1511, as it will be possible to conclude for the inscriptions from the Dighton Rock (USA).(28)

 

1502 - João da Nova discovered the island of Ascension (EM) and Fernão de Noronha discovers the island (in Brazil) (EM) what it has his name.(29)

 

1503 - Of return of India, Estevão da Gama discovered the island of Santa Helena (EM).(30)

 

1503-1504 The navy captained by Gonçalo Coelho, establishes a management-fortress in territory of which it would become Brazil, very probably in Cabo Frio.

 

1505 - Conquest of Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué/Agadir (1505-1541).(31)

 

1506 - Conquest of Essaouira Marocco ("Mogador") (1506-1525). (32)

 

1503 - Possession of Cochim (Kochi in malaiala) is the biggest city of the state of Kerala, in India. He is one of the best ports of the country, in the western coast. It was from the Portuguese State of India between 1503 and 1663.(33)

 

1503 - Conquest of Zanzibar - possession (1503-1698). It made part of Oman into 1698. (34)

 

1505 - Possession of Coulão (India). In 1505 the Portugueses established here a management, having in 1518 established his sovereignity through the construction of the Fort of Saint Tomé. The city was given up to the Netherlands in 1661.35

 

1505 - Conquest of Cananor (Kannur in malaiala) is a city of the state of Kerala, in India. It is a port in the south-west of the country. It was a Portuguese possession between 1505 and 1663. (36)

 

3rd Fase - Occupation of the American Lands.

 

 

Conquest of Quíloa (Tanzania) - possession (1505-1512) - In 1500, on the way of India, the Portuguese Pedro Álvares Cabral also visited Kilwa and it told to the beauties houses from coral and his terraces pertaining to " black Moors ", which attracted the attention of the Portugueses. With the presence in the region, in the beginning of the century XVI, the fortune of Kilwa changed radically: Vasco da Gama took the island in 1502 making her tax of Portugal. Since the sultan was ceasing of paying his tribute, in 24 of July of 1505, the strength of D. Francisco de Almeida, first Viceroy of the Portuguese State of India, conquered and began it the construction of the first Portuguese fortification from stone and lime in Oriental Africa, the next day, to 25 of July.(37)

 

1506 - Tristão da Cunha discovered the island (EM) which still today it has his name.(38)

 

1506 - Portuguese navigators disembark in Madagáscar (Eur), which they gave the name of island of São Lourenço.(39)

 

1506 - Conquest of Bandar Abbas (Iran) (1506-1615). (40)

 

 

1507 - Conquest of the Island of Mozambique. When Vasco da Gama arrived, in 1498, the Island of Mozambique had become a village swahili of Arab and black with his sheikh subordinated to a sultan of Zanzibar and it kept on being frequented by Arabs who were continuing his commerce of centuries with the Red Sea, Persia, India and the islands of the Indian one. Where in the Island it is today the Palace of the Captains-generals, they did the Portugueses to Tower of Saint Gabriel in the year of 1507, it dates in what they occupied the Island, building the small fortification that had 15 men to protect the management in her installed.(41)

 

1507 - Conquest of Socotra or Socotorá (in Arab? Suqutrah) 1507 - 1511, is a small archipelago formed by four islands in the Indian Ocean, in front of coast of the Horn of Africa, to 250 km to the East of the End Guardafui and to approximately 350 km to the South-east of the coast of Yemen. (42)

 

Nagapattinam (also known by Negapatam) it was an ancient territory of Portugal between the years of 1507 and 1657. It is located in the State of Tamil Nadu, in the south-east of India.(43)

 

March of 1508: The strength egipto-guzerates surprises in Chaúl (Dabul) a small Portuguese fleet; after three days of combat two Portuguese ships manage to escape.

 

The Battle of Diu of 1509, the most emblematic of the History of the Portuguese Navy was one of the rare naval battles in which the due navy was totally destroyed. From the strategic point of view it was the factor that, above any other, created the conditions that allowed the Afonso de Albuquerque to conquer Goa in 1510, Malaca in 1511, to enter in the Red Sea and to oblige the Samorim de Calicut to ask the peace in 1513 and to ask to make definitely man of Ormuz into 1515. Portugal dominates the Indian Ocean.(45)

 

 

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