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Discovery   

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Introduction |

 

Historical framing|
 

Discoveries and Possessions |


Vessels and Inovation|
 

Navigators / Discoveries /Sailors|
 

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Portugal and Age of Discovery, Age of Discoveries, Portuguese discoveries, differences between the caravel, nau, carrack, galleon, Discoveries of the world , History of Portugal, great sailors of the sea, Discovery of America, Discovery of Canada, Discovery of Australia. Explorers of the oceans and sea. Exploration of the globe. Portuguese ships vessels. Portuguese Empire, Instruments and navigation inovations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

In this part of the document there are intended to do a register of the events referring to the sea discoveries, conquests and commercial and cultural relations of Portugal in the periods of the XV and XVI centuries.

There are registered in chronological order the events connected with discovery of new lands and sea routes, as well as  the conquests of some places. Not being these conquests, in any cases coincident with his respective discovery, in case of the Portugueses to have carried out, the register of the conquest will be marked in the place of the discovery with the respective dates. Ex - Island of Mozambique (discovery Eur 1498/conquered in 1507).

Caravela redonda

In what it tells to the discovery of lands or seas, in the chronological picture of the events, when marked some event of the type, an acronym will be added telling if this land was discovered in world-wide exclusiveness - EM, discovered in world-wide exclusiveness but with native inhabitants - EMn, or for the first time for the Europeans - Eur.


Regarding the maps of support, the places with red color refer to discoveries or exclusive explorations. The places marked with yellow color refer to possessions / conquests.

 

 

 

 

 


 

   Age of Discovery

 

   The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration, was a period in history starting in the 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Portugal, and then the other European countries, engaged in intensive exploration of the world, establishing direct contacts with Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania and mapping the planet.

   The Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry, reaching the Indian Ocean by this route in 1488.

   In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama finally achieved the dream of reaching India by sailing around Africa, opening up direct trade with "Asia". Soon, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the valuable “spice islands” in 1512, landing in China one year later. East and west exploration overlapped in 1522, when the portuguese Ferdinand Magellan led a Spanish expedition west, achieving the first circumnavigation of the world.

  The Spanish only have a significant discover, almost 70 years after the Portuguese, when in 1492 Spain inform the  world that the lands west to Azores are ...Asia. So, if the Spanish are named as conquistadors, the portuguese were the realy exploradors, once they search on all over world seas !

   In 1595, the Dutch, French and English, who entered the race of exploration shortly after learning of these exploits, defied the Iberian monopoly on maritime trade by searching for new routes, first to the north, and into the Pacific Ocean around South America, but eventually by following the Portuguese around Africa into the Indian Ocean.

 

The sea domination

 

   Along the times there were several nations that, for the technological innovation and / or for the naval power, dominated the seas in certain periods of time and of sea / river space.

 

Fenícia (Mediterranean) - century V B.C.

Grece (Mediterranean) - century IV B.C.

Cartage (Mediterranean) - century III B.C.

Rome (Mediterranean) - centuryII a.c. - Sec. III B.C.

Bizance (Mediterranean) - century III a.c. - Sec. XI

Viking (North sea, part/Mediterranean, North Atlântic) - century VII - Sec. XI

Génova (Mediterranean) - century XIII

Venice (Mediterranean) - century XIV

China (China sea/Índic) - century XIV - XV

Árabia (Índic) - century XV

 

Portugal (Atlantic) - century XV

             (South Atlantic) - century XVI

             (Indic) - century XVI

 

 

 

Historical framing of Portugal

 

When about 1249 Portugal ended the "reconquest" of the territory, referring to the conquest for south, of the space that today is Portugal, it began a process of consolidation, administration of the country. The remaining Christian kingdoms  of the Iberian Peninsula (Hispania) were still fighting to south against the Moors (up to 1492), showing however, principally Castela, will of taking care the administration of Portugal.

In this period of time the Portuguese language (1290) was created, when Christ's Order (1319, in substitution of the  of the Templar Order), creation of the University in Coimbra (1290), signed commercial treaties with England was establishedand the Portuguese navy was organized. In 1383 it appeared a critical period, being in question to independence of the country. After great military victories in 1385, John I organized the country on significant way.

Again when the independence, Portugal was consolidated (always pressed by Spain) turned now the focus to the ocean.
     With motivations at religious, commercial, military level and of international recognition, travels were organized along the African coast and the limit of Atlantic Ocean, in order to occupy several strategic places.

 

Portugal could be consider the 1st Big Intercontinental Empire, broadcast and administered at sea. This small country,  dominated on the  XV century the whole African western coast and Atlantic islands (very probably also lands the west of the Azores). In the century XVI took the power of the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean (even to the sea of China and Japan).
   The  development of other countries and the over extension of the Portuguese Empire provoked the collapse and the loss of influence.

 

Discoveries and Possessions

Principal Discoveries and Portuguese Possessions.
 

(There are not included travels that are not legitimized but to which there are signs of realization)

1415 - Beginning of the Portuguese Empire. Conquest of Ceuta and other places in Africa. 1424 - Rediscovery of the Archipelago of the Madeira 1427 - Diogo of Silves discover the Archipelago of Azores 1434 - Gil Eanes passa o Cabo Bojador, considerado o fim do Mundo 1441 - Nuno Tristão pass the White End 1448 - Diogo Gomes discovers the Archipelago of Cape Verde Álvaro Fernandes reached Guinea-Bissau 1470 - Reached the Kingdom of Elmina - Ghana 1470 - discovery of the Archipelago of Saint Tomé and Prince - John de Santarem and Peter Escobar. 1482 - Diogo Cão discovers the  Zaire river and navigates in it 150 Km 1484 - Diogo Cão reaches the south of the Namíbia 1488 - passage of the Cape of the Good Hope for Bartolomeu Dias 1498 - Duarte Pacheco Pereira reaches Brazil that will be officially discovered by Peter Álvares Cabral in 1500. 1495 - John Fernandes Lavrador reaches Canada 1501 - John da Nova (Galician) discovers the island of Ascenção to the service of Portugal 1501 - John da Nova (Galician) discovers the island of Ascenção to the service of Portugal 1506 - Tristão da Cunha discovered this island that today has his name. In 1524, Aleixo Garcia and around two thousand Guaranis attack the frontier posts of the Inca Empire. Leaving from the current coast of Brazil, going through the forests and the river Paraguay, they reached the current city of Sucre in Bolivia. 1514 - John de Lisboa and Estevão Fróis reach the River Plate 1542 - John Rodrigues Cabrilho (to the service of Spain) discovered the Califórnia. The Portuguese Fernão de Magalhães was the first European to sail for the strait with his name in 1520, crossing then the Pacific Ocean. O português Fernão de Magalhães foi o primeiro europeu a navegar pelo estreito com o seu nome em 1520, atravessando depois o Oceano Pacífico. 1588, John Martins effectuates the passage of the NW (Atlantic / Pacify for the North), transporting the governor of the Philippines, Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado. 1588, John Martins effectuates the passage of the NW (Atlantic / Pacify for the North), transporting the governor of the Philippines, Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado. David Melgueiro in 1660, to the service of Holland, carries out the travel of Japan the Portugal for the Strait of  Béring (Arctic). David Melgueiro in 1660, to the service of Holland, carries out the travel of Japan the Portugal for the Strait of  Béring (Arctic). 1587 - during 10 years, Duarte Lopes discovers the region of the great Lakes and the springs of the great African Rivers. (according to map of Pigafeta). Lopo Soares explored, in 1517 to region of Ethiopia and Somalia. 1498 - places visited in the Travel to India - Mozambique, Tânzania, Kenya. 1506 - Madagascar (São Lourenço) 1507 - conquest of Socotra 1512 - Peter Mascarenhas, navigator, diplomat and later viceroy of India, about 1512, caught sight of the Islands Mascarenhas 1500 - conquest of Mascate (Oman) 1506 - conquest of Bandar Abbas (Iran) From 1521 to 1602, the country Bahrein was occupied by the Portuguese. 1541 - Fernão Mendes Pinto, Diogo Zeimoto and Cristovão Borralho reached Japan. The city of Nagazaki was established. 1513: Jorge Álvares reached the coast of China. 1553 Fixation in Macao. Malaca (Malaysia) - conquered in 1511 Power in Ceilão, Sri Lanka (Established Colombo, in 1517) 1624, António de Andrade travels to the Kingdoms of the Tibet, relative of evangelise those people. 1512: António of Abreu discovers the island of Timor The first Europeans to bring the Ternate near were making part of the Portuguese expedition of Francisco Serrão to the Molucas (1511) Macáçar. It was a Portuguese possession from 1512 1498 - exploration of India. Possession of the local princípais of commerce.

 


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