This section seeks
to expose some issues that are not fully, or that are already not tend
to be accepted by some, as facts. Are issues especially with the
discovery and consequences the "Confidentiality Policy" adopted by
Portugal at the time of discovery, not revealing their findings to the
to West on cent. XIV
to West on cent. XV
antes de 1492
to West on cent. XV
depois de 1492
- Mapa and evidences of
travels to West
Map of Cantino
- Rock of
Tower of Newport
Fortress of Ninigret
Creataed in April/2008 | Upadated on
Map of the site
The first contact with the American continent has always
been cause for controversy and enigma throughout the historical periods,
but because it is difficult to prove who actually visited that continent
for the first time.
Seem no doubt that the Vikings were there around
the year 1000. The case would be resolved if the same people, had
reported to the world that there existed a continent, it is that this
concept was already applied and they realized they had! Thus, the knowledge
of land to the west was lost in time for the Medieval Era (or even
before) were documented trips along the Atlantic ocean (followed by many
routes not planned and resulting from storms and challenges of nature).
Although such reports are not very explicit. It is accepted then, that
first man who arrived that lands was Christopher Columbus in the service
Bringing together diverse information on records not "officially
recognized", but in many ways point to the completion of travel to areas
west of the Atlantic Ocean, the records described here in order to
provide information about some of these "possible trips."
The data presented indicate to travel in several century. XIV, records
in fewer and less precise destination, given the vastness of the
American continent and the records are not precise enough. Are analyzed
data in the travel times of the century XV, before the voyage
of Columbus. Records are also described in the travel sector XV and XVI,
but the real American continent, as Columbus proved the world ... an
Some texts are exposed to a language at the time they
were written, so it seems look like a wrong language from a grammatical
Travels to West in
Travels to West in XV
Travels to West in century XV
- Maps and evidences of
travels to west
Map of Cantino
Map of Kunstman
Rock of Dighton
Tower of Newport
Fortress of Ninigret
- Data from
D. Diniz, who was a great king in 45 years of
government then prepared the young kingdom of Portugal to the conquest
of the seas, and with this objective, the land of Leiria, had planted a
real forest of pine and other woods aproveitáveis in naval construction
. Thus in 1322 the Portuguese flag now waves in the aisles of El-Rei. It
was this year that the Portuguese had the majesty Genoa and Venice, with
extensive powers to sign contracts, one of its best ministers. These
were for pest Portugal practical seamen invested in ocean, and with them
the noble Genovez Manoel Peçanha, renowned Italian master of the seas.
In this, D. Diniz conferred the rank of admiral of the fleet Galhardo.
I, however, lucky that the king does not fit the academic glory of
disenchant the mysterious Atlantic, as was his wish. In his deathbed
asked the child to complete the work as auspicious beginning, and make
the greatness and fame from Portugal in clearing the seas unknown.
D. Affonso, the nickname angry, do not forget the father asked.
Surrounded by men of great value, as the nobleman Diogo Pacheco, the
bishop of the port, and Admiral Peçanha, invested against the mystery of
the seas. The failure of several attempts not deterred from his idea.
A series of expeditions to the mailings. One day
docked in Lisbon one of the captains, Sancho Brandão. Tears in
the "West Sea", beaten by storms and driven by a mysterious current, the
master Sancho addressed a new land, inhabited by naked men in trees and
opulent red ink. Tried to circumvent it, browse to the north. Could not,
but discovered more islands. Loading with some men and some productions
of the earth, Sancho and his sailors sail for Portugal, eager to imbed
in the Portuguese crown the glory of the first discovery in the seas of
Afonso IV baptized a large island with the name "Island of Brazil",
indicating that it was the place where was the redwood tree.
On 12 February 1343, as was customary, the Pope Clement
VI announced the big event, in a letter written by Montemor-o-Novo. And
this is expressed:
WE say reverently to Your Holiness that our natural were the
first who found the islands mentioned in the West ... drove
in there eyes of our understanding, and desiring to
implement our intent, our people and send some naos to
explore the quality of land, which, approaching those
islands, if captured, by virtue of men, animals and other
things and have a great pleasure to our kingdoms
the letter discovered a map of the region and it sees the inscription: "Insula
de Brazil. Since then the Portuguese monopolize the trade of redwood. So
much so that in documents of the fourteenth century the names are linked
to Brazil from Portugal. The Brazil of Portugal "... were the British
end of the fourteenth century.
In the year 1380 the word appeared in England in Brazil verses:
He locketh as a
sparhawk his eyen
Him nedeth not his colour for to dyen
With Brasil, no with grain, of Portugal
... and Brasil of Portugali
Large maps of the fourteenth century, after 1343, forming
an island in the Atlantic Ocean, about the current position of the
northeastern region of South America and with a configuration similar to
this. This means that after the year of 1343 to South America was
explored by the Portuguese and considered a possession.
In 1375, Charles V, then King of France, established a cartographer of
Majorca to copy the Portuguese map, with orders to also fix and extend
the map based on the holdings made between 1343 and 1375. This statement
is that the "island", where it was found the redwood, the approximate
position and shape of South America
In the world map of Ranulfo Nyggeden established in 1360, is also the
design of South America, as said island.
South America also appears in other cartographic
important letters, such as Zeno Nicolao (year 1380), Bechario (1435) and
Andrea Bianco (1436 and 1448). The latter offers an explanation that
clarifies the case perfectly. He says that the "island" is far from Cape
Verde in the Atlantic ocean, in about 1500 miles, or the current
approximate distance to the Cape Verde region more eastern South America.
On the map of Pero Vaz Bisagudo also shows the "island"
of redwood from 1,550 miles away in Cape Verde. The bachelor John Martin,
cosmography and doctor of Cabral's fleet, in a letter to the king of
Portugal, dated May 01, 1500, indicates its sovereign seeking the "Bisagudo
Map", which was very old, he says, and where find the true location of
the land on which contributed Cabral, see the text:
"When, Lord, the place of this land have bring a Mapamundi
that Pedro Vaaz Bisagudo has there and you could see the
majesty of this land sytyo, but this Mapamundi on this earth
be certify no people or no: Mapamundi is old."
That is, the fleet of Cabral was not only intentionally
moving to the west, completely destroyed the lie that she was trying to
get around Africa to India, but also knew the location of South America,
its true destination.
On 2 March 1450 the Infante of Portugal gave the Flemish nobleman Joe
van den Berge, a native of Bruges, and commonly known as Jacome de
Bruges, a few Azores islands. In the document of gift is a reference to
the "island", discovered by Sancho Brandão.
The islands Flores and Corvo were donated in 1464 to a
woman from Lisbon, D. Maria de Vilhena. The Flemish William van den
Haagen, on behalf of the donations, received the document of gift. This
is also a reference to the "island of redwood."
In the fifteenth century was the current referred to as South America
and the island name or Brazil Brandão.
On some maps of the century XIV and XV is only an indication of "Island
of soft ', applied to South America is what you see, for example, the
map of Paul Toscanelli.
With the name "Island of Brazil" appears on the globe of
Martin Behaim established in 1487 and played in Germany in 1492, before
the "discovery of America" (the play is the discovery in March and
Menu | Travels to West
▪ 1436-Sign André Bianco (cartographer in
the service of Portugal) in their letters and their discoveries of
portulano Brazil or Antilia, figuring that as a large
island, Sea Berry and the Sargasso Sea
▪ 1447-A ship from the Oporto goes to Greenland where the
sailors land. (other data unknown).
▪ 1448-Andrew Bianco notes in his letters to the existence of
Brazil exact distance of 1500 miles between the islands of Cape
Verde and the Cape de S. Roque.
▪ 1452-Diogo de Teive and his son John discovered the island of
Flores and reach the latitude of Labrador's land, not by bad
weather landing in that land.
▪ 1472-Find João Vaz Corte Real the land of João Vaz , or Terra
Nova (Newfoundland) or Land of the Cod in North America.
Evidence of this discovery of João Vaz not scarce and
1.º-In the letter on the North America's Atlas of
Fernão Vaz Dourado, exists in Torre do Tombo(Lisbon), where it reads, in
part on the Terra Nova, the following: _B. Land of John, of John Vaz_ .
2.º-In mappa-mundi of the Atlas of Jomard made on
parchment by order of Henry II of France (1547-1559), where the same
name for the Terra Nova is.
3.º-In mappa-mundi of Mercator, Atlas of the same
Jomard, which comes by words, referring to Newfoundland--_Terra de
Joam Vaz_, _Rio de Joam Vaz_.
4.º-In a manuscript made between 1672 and 1711 in
the Azores, where better to knew the discoveries of John Vaz, which is
found in the following reference to donation of D. Beatriz to John
Vaz: "In the things that way, the master Bruges died, leaving no heirs.
Then came the two aristocratic island who came to discover _Terra of
Cod_; these asked the island to d. Beatrix, wife of the Infante D.
Fernando, for services he had done, they did through the captaincy of
Terceira island, the which she gave him. The Royal Court João Vaz, who
was one of the aristocratic, was that of Angra. "
5.º-Finally, these stretches of _Saudades of
Terra_ of Gaspar Fructuoso, born in the Azores in 1522: "João Vaz Royal
Court, first Third master of the island from Angra, for services that
did the king - Portugal in the wars against Castella, walking by
_capitão of thick armada_, which say _tão great adventurer was at sea in
this Kingdom has no segundo_ and some want to say who discovered the
same island Third and _algumas and the component parts of Brazil, Cape
Verde_ where he was the first there was the view of _ilha ... Fogo_ and
coming, as I have said, João Vaz Royal Court of _descobrimento daTerra
of Cod that by warrant of the king-was fazer_, he was given the
captaincy of Angra, the Island Third and the island of St. Jorge ...
They say that some of Jacome Bruges, first master of the island of
Terceira Jesus Christo, was Flemish ... and, while it came to populating
ahi João Vaz Côrte Real ... and the vine_descobrimento of Newfoundland
and the Bacalhau_ Jacome Bruges of the collected and said that it leaves
half of the island, which accepted, then Jacome de Bruges went to their
land and gone, so that no become, and the infanta d. Beatriz, a wave,
the island has said João Vaz Corte Real. "
Documents subsequent to the disappearance of two brothers,
Gaspar and Miguel Corte Real, record their deeds and those of his father
João Vaz. Taes are: charter of 17 September 1506 and especially the 4
May 1567, donation to the Royal Court Manoel, son of Vasco Annes and
grandson of John Vaz, which is the following phrase: 'your pae and
uncles sent discover Newfoundland. Bartholomeu las Casas, a friend and
companion of Columbus in the Genoese his travels the West in its
_Historia of Indias_ pointing naive and sincerely the indications that
Columbus had to go to the West,indications, however, confessed by the
Columbus, cites, among others, the travel of Corte Real, using these
terms: "The Corte Real have been in several times searching_that land_.
▪ 1473-1484-Afonso Sanches discovered the Antilles. Based
on statements Bartholomeu of las Casas wrote that "some escriptores
hespanhóes Affonso Sanches call and provide as natural of bark,
collected by Columbus in their residency on the island of Madeira, to
feel him close to death revealed the secret and you wish escripto by the
directions and paths that had taken and brought a letter from marear and
the times and place where was the island. "
Las Casas also said that when he was with Columbus to the first
discovery in Cuba, "the Indians of that neighbors have reported to have
reached this island HESPANHOL other white men bearded and , others like
us, _antes we annos_ many others do not.
▪ John V and Cristiano of Denmark organize and travel in
place all the West.
▪ 1487-Trip to America for Fernão Dulmo (Flemish) and João
Affonso Estreito, with Martin Behaim which has then that built
the world and the land map of the Portuguese real money, the existence
the peninsula of Florida, the Antilles and the Gulf of Mexico.
▪ 1492-Discovery, between January 30 and April 14, the land of
Labrador, Labrador by John Fernandes and Pedro de Barcellos.
In 1499 made D. Manuel João Fernandes Labrador donation to the captaincy
of island or islands that elle _found or find again_. Since resources to
pay for shipping, João Fernandes Labrador was associated with Francis
Fernandes and João Gonçalves, squires, naturae Azores, with three Inglez
merchants of Bristol, the quaes, probably provided the capital needs,
and they won the King Henry VII of England new letter of donation of
land to discover. However, João Fernandes Labrador, where organized the
expedition, knew of existence of land that _go find_ because in there
been with Pedro de Barcellos January to April 1492, and the end of his
expedition to the dealers in Bristol but was not otherwise take
possession of land previously found.
Menu | Travels to West
1495: Travel navigator João FernandesLabrador,
and Pêro of Barcelos to Greenland and the "Land of Labrador."
1498: Travel of Duarte Pacheco Pereira and
exploitation of the South Atlantic American coast north of the
Amazon. In 1498, D. Manuel told the captain secretly Duarte Pacheco
Pereira explore South America and verify its astronomical position.
Duarte is refers to the D. Manuel as follows:
"And so, lucky Prince, we have known and seen as Reyna of
your third year of Our Lord of Hanoi, one thousand four
hundred and ninety-eight, in which your Highness had
discover the oucidental, moving beyond the grandeur of the
sea ociano, honda he found human and navigate also with
large land many large and adjacent Islands and that she
extends to seventy graaos of Ladeza equinoctial line against
the Arctic pole ... ... sobredita by the coast of the
equinoctial circle in front of twenty-oyto graaos of Ladeza
against the pole he found antarctica nella find much brazil
, with many other things that this is greatly
Reyno loaded in ships.
In quoting the details of the land and with abundant
fine redwood, Duarte Pacheco leaves no doubt that it's South
America. Duarte Pacheco returned to Portugal, and later served as a
guide in journey of exploration of Pedro Alvares Cabralon possetion
of Brazil. Strangely (and mysteriously) the Brazilian history books
do not mention the presence of Pacheco on expedition of
Cabral. Pero Vaz de Caminha in its letter of 1 May 1500 says:
"... And assy followed our path on this sea of long, until
Tuesday the octave of Easter, which were twenty-one days of
April, which see some signaes of land. "
Sail "long" in the language of the time, meant
"cross." So Cabral's squadof left Lisbon to cross the
Atlantic Ocean and not for coast to Africa or it differs
slightly for fear of calm as the "official history of Brazil. Also
it should be noted that at no time during the course of the squad
Cabral was hit by storms that push for a change in plan drawn up in
Menu | Travels to West
- Data collected (among others) of the authors and Manuel
Luciano Manuel Rosa
In 1424 appears in a letter filed in a London museum,
tailored for such a Zuane Pizzigano, Italian cartographer in the service
of Portugal, it seems born and raised in Venice. It is exactly
reproduced in Atlantic, northwest of the Azores a group of four islands
with names of Portuguese roots, called Saya, Satanazes, Ymena and that
Antília clearly will coincide with the Newfoundland and Nova Scotia on
one side and Avalon and, presumably, the Prince Edward Island, on the
other hand, islands unknown to the world at that time. The Prof.
Armando Cortesão after four years of research, revealed their studies in
a book written in English, The Nautical Chart of 1424, published by the
University of Coimbra in 1954.
General appearance of the nautical charts of 1424.
Unknown islands to the center.
To better examine the Navigational Chart of 1424, you
must divide it into four parts:
1) The extreme left is the date of August 22 of 1424 and
the name of its author, cartographer Zuane Pizzigano. Then,
vertically, are the four islands (2,3,4,5): the North is a small island
in the shape of a quarter call Saya (2) and below a great with the
name Satanazes (3), further south, another large island
known Antília (4), and west of these, another island short
call (5) Ymana, In the middle of the map are many small islands,
which belong to archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Canaries and Cape
Verde. (all discovered by Portugal) (D) and the right side of the
navigational charts are very well delineated, the beaches and coasts of
Europe and Africa, from Ireland to the archipelago of Cape Verde.
The authenticity of the nautical charts of 1424 is not
doubtful by the exposed topographical features, typical of the time.
In the 1424 nautica chart are clearly recorded the date
of August 22 of 1424 and the name of the author, Zuane Pizzigano, an
Italian cartographer of Venice. Although the map was made by an Italian
in the names of four islands - Antília, Satanazes, Soya and Ymana - are
written in Portuguese, to testify so the round trip from Portuguese
navigators to land of America, before 1424!
We should note that Antília or Antilha, has always been only a
Portuguese word. The corresponding word in Italian is Antiglia, but the
Italian cartographer, Zuane Pizzigano, used the word Portuguese,
certainly, to certify that the island was Portuguese. A Antília word is
composed of "ante" which means "in front of ', more "Island". So Antília
is an island that is in front of anything, in this case of the
Based on the Legend of the Island of Seven Cities or Legend of the West,
that served as a refuge for remote Seven Bishops of the Iberian
Peninsula, some said that the bays on the island indicated in the
Charter designed Antilles Náutica of 1424, representing the exact number
of bishops who fled ...
Be noted that the bays, as well drawn in the two major islands in
Nautical Charter of 1424, are, all those many bays enormous, which is
put inside the earth and that there are in Newfoundland and in New
It is striking to compare the existing capes and the bays
of the Newfoundland and New Scotia with the bays and capes represented
Islands Antília and Satanazes! But it is curious to note the detail of
the Island Satanazes, corresponding to the Newfoundland, has more bays,
which put much within the earth, coinciding exactly with the geography
of the coast of the island of Newfoundland!
It is important to compare the angles of inclination
of Newfoundland and of Nova Scotia with the angle of inclination of the
four islands designed Navigation in the Charter of 1424. Extraordinary
Angles of inclination
Moreover we can observe the fascinating nautical chart of 1424, is the
angle of inclination formed between the vertical and horizontal
(parallel to equator) with the axis of the length of the Islands
Satanazes and Antília.
Isle of Satanazes the angle is 57 degrees, almost the same angle
inclination of Newfoundland that is 60 degrees. Isle of Antília the
angle obtained with the same technique is 22 degrees, but in Nova Scotia
is much greater: 62 degrees. If there is a difference numerical between
the angles should be noted that there is, however, one common
denominator: all islands are inclined to Europe. About the island of
Saya we believe that the representation of The Avalon Peninsula in
Newfoundland, because it was not the isthmus as strait was actually an
Believe that the island Ymana is a representation of the current
lsland of Prince Eduard.
Comparing the angles of inclination of the axis of the
islands of the Greater Antilles - Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Puerto
Rico - Sea of Caralbas, we see that they are all lying in its major axis
length parallel to the equator and have a slope is facing to Central
America rather than Europe, as True Portuguese Antiles are in
Canada and designed in nautical charts of 1424.
It is interesting to compare the area of mainland Portugal to the areas
of islands Satanazes, Antília, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.
The area of mainland Portugal is 34.340 square miles or 88.940 Km2. The
area of Nova Scotia is 21.425 square miles or 55.490 km2 and Terra Nova
is the 43.359 square miles or 112.299 km2.
Obviously, the first Portuguese discoverers of Newfoundland and Nova
Scotia, or the islands Satanazes and Antília, very well observed that
they were islands of large size and therefore much larger than the other
small islands known as the Atlantic Azores , Madeira, Canaries and Cape
We note also that the name of Hell Island Satanazes or name given to
Newfoundland, and was a name chosen by the Portuguese, because it
describes the diabolical conditions that even today there are for
shipping because of the mist closed, extreme tides (from 60 feet!) and
the dangerous mountains of ice or "icebergs", capable of sinking ships
as the world largest liner, the "Titanic."
(from Manuel Luciano Silva)
Menu | Travels to West
This map is considered anonymous but, know it today
that was made by a Portuguese cartographer in Lisbon in 1502. In the
lower left corner has a caption which reads: "Master Alberto Cantino, to
Mr Duke Hercules." This is the begining of history grieve of this map.
It is now well known that Albert Cantino was an
Italian spy in Lisbon at the end of the fifteenth century and
beginning of the sixteenth century. He was a so smart and efficient spy
who was once secretary of the particular King Manuel I. The fact that
most shows are the two letters of intelligence that he wrote to the Duke
d'Este, the Duke of Ferrara, describing all the details of the return
journey that Gaspar Corte Real Newfoundland did in 1501. In
Lisbon on 17 and 18, October 1501, Cantino say in both letters
that he heard everything directly because "the King was in the presence"
when Gaspar Corte Real ( son of John C. R.) made its submission to the
Portuguese monarch! Because Alberto was the same secret agent of
Hercules d'Este, the time, Duke of Ferrara, which was sent to Lisbon to
collect information about the Portuguese discoveries because at that
time great fame and had caused much envy across Europe.
On the pretext to come to Lisbon to negotiate horses, has
Cantino bribe a Portuguese cartographer, made a nautical chart with all
the geographic information in the secret archives of the Casa da India
Paid a high price for planisfério: twelve ducats in gold! It is known by
another letter signed by Cantino he sent this statement to his boss,
Duke of Ferrara, on the 19th of November 1502, which ended as follows:
"the letter (the map) that is di lucky, et spero che piace in this way
to you Examined. "Translation" This statement is so quality that I
hope will be very pleased to you. ".
The Cantino Planisfério was for about 90 years in
the Library Ducal until Pope Clement VIII moved to another palace in
Modena. But this map had little luck because by the riots of 1859 gone
to be found to serve as a lining of a shield sausage in the same city of
Modena. The Director of Library Estense was called to the site and then
took him to the library where is from 1868 until now.
The Planisfério of Cantino in 1502 is today considered a
masterpiece of Portuguese cartography and map is one of the most
important of the world. The first letter represents the one way
planisfério more complete: from Europe, North America, Central and
South, the whole Africa, Asia to the East.
It is a letter with very detailed and rich in toponyms. But the part
that we matters more is the most western of the Azores, that is the case
to American Land. In this region we see a line to the center that is
perpendicular to line of the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 to divide the
world between Portugal and Spain. This imaginary line was drawn to 370
leagues west of the western most island of the Archipelago of Cape
Verde, by requirement of the King John II.
In this map we see that the Newfoundland and Brazil are included in the
hemisphere Eastern, half the land that belonged to Portugal.
(1) Represents the Greenland with a flag of Portugal with the Five
(2) 'Land of King Portugall,' representing the Newfoundland with
the pine in Canada.
(3) Line of Tordesillas dividing the area of land between Portugal and
(5) Portugal mainland
(7) Cape Verde Archipelago
(8) island Hispaniola, now Haiti and S. Domingo.
(9) Island of Cuba
(10) of the Florida peninsula. (!)
(11) "The Antiles of castella King '. Note that this phrase the name
Antiles is clearly written in Portuguese and not in Spanish antilles.
One of the great surprises is the name Antilles - These islands in
the Caribbean Sea are not the real Antiles. The True Antilles are
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, in Canada, almost
two thousand miles further north, referenced in the Charter nautical in
The cartographer has done Planisfério of Cantino in 1502, to name the
Caribbean islands of Antilles, led the whole world, Portuguese among
them Armando Cortesão!
True Antiles are designed in nautical charts of 1424.
This has been deeply analyzed in detail by Professor Armando Cortesão
and published a book in English "The Nautical Chart of 1424," published
by University of Coimbra in 1954. Of thousand copies iexists the
specimen No. 232 in Library-Museum of Luciano Silva, Vale de Cambra,
Portugal. Another surprise is the inclusion of Florida! This was only
officially discovery by Spain in 1513. However, it is this statement
copied from Portuguese maps of 1502 ...
Menu | Travels to West
After publishing his book 'The Pioneers of Rock and
Portuguese Dighton, 'Luciano Manuel Silva received a letter from London
where asked whether in addition to maps of Reinel of 1522, the Charter
of the Reinel 1519 and the Planisfério of Diogo Ribeiro of 1522, he knew
the map Kunstmann of the 1571! (among others that relate this land) Sent
to the John Carter Brown Library, located in Providence, Rhode Island,
which is considered the best in the United States in Ancient
Cartography, and there found a collection of maps.
Map of Peter Reinel - Located Newfoundland
Map of Fernão Vaz Dourado in 1576-Reference of
the land Labrador and "Corte Real"
Map of Kuntsmann
"Most of this collection was coordinated by the
humanist Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547) and the German printer
Valentim Fernandes that established in Lisbon. In 1715 Ignaz
Peutinger offered what was accumulated by his predecessor to the
library of the Jesuits in Augsburg, but the beginning of the
nineteenth century when Map of Kuntsmannhouve sharing a part of the
collection was Augsburg and the other was to Munich. This does not
mean that all of Portuguese origin material was collected by
Peutinger, such as the Atlas of Vaz Dourado which was acquired more
afternoon. But this anonymous letter c. 1506 was acquired in one of
Lisbon for the collection of the humanist Augsburg .
It is generally known as "Kunstmann III" because of its western part
was first played in 1859, a fac-simile color with the No. III, the
famous Atlas of the wise priest and German historian Friedrich
Kunstmann, who lived some years in Lisbon. There is no doubt that it
is genuinely Portuguese. The parchment on which this letter was
drawn mesure approximately 87 x 117 cm. In its larger and
represented the Black Sea, Mediterranean, Europe, Africa and half of
the Atlantic with Greenland, Newfoundland and coast of Brazil. Its
main feature is the representation of Greenland, the Land Cortte
Riall and Brazil. It is noted that this letter, which, as we
believe, follows the time of c. 1504 signed by Pedro Reinel Is the
second to show a range of latitudes of the equator to 68 degrees
North. It is also the second, after Reinel of c. 1504 to present the
new type of compass card with the flower of the lis pointing
north, which as noted Heinrich Winter 'was introduced by the
Portuguese' and it "become internacional”. Here is a
picture of the map Kunstmann made by a cartographer in Lisbon 1506
and preserved in the Library of Augsburg, Germany, showing and of
the future Canada , with the name "Terrain cortte Riall" or Land of
The Map of Kunstmann
Here is the description of this map as it appears in the Monumenta
Cartographica Henriquina published in Portugal in 1960:
Figure No. 1 --- Map of Kuntsmann
(1) Aim the "Land of cortte Riall" or Land of Corte Real
(2) points to a bay in the form of "8"
(3) points to the line of latitude
(4) Aim for the lis flower indicating the No.
Examined very closely the map of Kuntsmann note is "the two bays
linked by the neck of a bottle forming a single bay in the form of a
It should be noted that the map of Kunstmann is a copy of the
statement of Pedro Reinel made in 1504 as explained above in
Monumenta Geographic Henriquina. The use of the compass card in the
first maps made by Portuguese cartographers with the fleur-de-lis to
indicate the North is very important because the lis was the symbol
of the King John II and also became part of the ornamentation of the
Crown of Kings Portuguese.
Menu | Travels to West
Washington, 6 October 2002 - The Portuguese traveled the
coast Western Latin America long before 1513, when the Spanish Fernando
Balboa "discovered" the Pacific Ocean to the Europeans or the journey of
circum-navigation of Fernão de Magalhães in 1519, says historian and
former CIA analyst, Peter Dickson.
In an investigation that is causing a sensation among
historians Americans, Dickson said he began his studies when the first
time saw the so-called statement of Waldseemuller produced in 1507 and
the continent "America" first appeared in honor of "navigator" Américo
Vespucio . According to history, this map was prepared before European
navigators know the western part of American continent washed by the
But Dickson, who saw the map for the first time in 1995,
said to have been "Just amazed" that the key points of the spatial
continent are correct, not only on the Atlantic coast as well as Pacific
coast, where Europeans had never been alleged at that time. In further
studies, Dickson noted that the place where the continent South America
is an angle towards the Pacific and which is today border between Chile
and Peru, is the map of 1507 located between the 18 and 19 degrees south
latitude, virtually the same location of the maps today.
"When I saw this angle was truly idiotic," said Dickson.
"My studies show that the site map that has a margin of error of less
than half a degree. How is that those who produced the map might know,
if nobody had been in that area ", he added. Dickson, although that has
made her career as a CIA analyst is known as a historian specializing in
maritime discoveries, Library of Congress spoke on his theory, which
, in 1500 Portugal sponsored a secret trip in which browsers passed by
the Strait of Magellan, doubled the Cape Horn and sailed then along the
western coast of the South American continent.
Dickson notes that subsequent studies that did the map of
Waldseemuller revealed that the latitudes and longitudes of the same
have accuracy of about 90 percent. The map also shows the mountains of
Andes are not visible from the Atlantic coast. The map does not show
however the point south of the American continent, giving the impression
that there was no connection between the Atlantic and Pacific, but
Dickson says that this could have been done to protect Portuguese
interests, which at the time were not interested in knowing which
of a possible new maritime route to the Indies.
Reference map of symbols Portuguese
The North American historian notes that a text prepared for follow the
map indicates that the new continent "is surrounded by all sides by
ocean, and that a globe made by the same team that made the map called
the Pacific Ocean with the name of Oceanus West ", the name given at the
Atlantic Ocean. This clearly indicates to Dickson those who drafted the
statement knew that the two oceans were connected.
Also another small map made in the same year by the same team who
prepared the map of Waldseemuller in 1507, clearly shows the Cape Horn
in the far south of the American continent. (not sure which)
For Dickson the Portuguese, after they were discovered in
Brazil dying of curiosity "to know" if there was another path that could
be problems for its routes in Africa. The map and "protect the
Portuguese" trying to avoid the truth and hiding the possibility of a
route through South American continent, Dickson said:
"Those who did not have the map all the cards on the table,". Dickson
notes that the sixteenth century was a period in which the knowledge of
navigation "were key to great values, giving enormous advantages those
involved in maritime exploration. " For Dickson, the likely commander of
the secret travel the coast accidental Latin America was the Amerigo
Vespucci, who until 1504 held four trips to the new world, the first two
to work for Spain and then the other two by the Portuguese.
It is known that the service of Portuguese Vespúcio
traveled to south along the Atlantic coast of South America to the Rio
de la Plata and found also the islands of South Georgia, South Atlantic.
The very statement of Waldseemuller is a flag of the Portuguese in Rio
The map obviously was responsible for contacts with Vespúcio, which died
in 1515, that gave name to the new continent of America in its honor.
John Herbert, director of the Department of Geography and Maps of the
Library the Congress, agrees that the information may have been passed
by Vespúcio because Waldseemuller and his companions were "cartographers
of secretary. " "They had their own information and had to get to
the other sources, said Herbert, who noted that in addition to giving
the name of The new continent America in honor of Américo Vespucio, have
a face painting of the navigator on top of the map and also published a
report of their travels. Herbert - who is trying to raise funds to
enable the Library of Congress buy the Map of Waldseemuller-(Certificate
of Birth America) - says that the theory of Dickson that the Portuguese
may have traveled along the west coast of the Americas can not be
rejected. "Somebody had information on the West Coast long before
Magellan or Balboa". Who and how this was achieved is something to
Note that the upper map is a framework of Waldseemuller with a painting
of Amerigo Vespucci and the side of the map of South America clearly
indicating the angle between the borders of Chile and Peru.
Also note that the addition of Chile borders with Peru is 19 degrees
south latitude. Is this truly impressive detail a geographic map with
the correct date of 1507.
Menu | Travels to West
Dighton Rock, and its recordings have been subject of
much curiosity and controversy for over 300 years. For centuries, while
Stone was on the waterfront, with its face exposed, several individuals
took the opportunity to add their initial designs. So far several
theories have been presented. However, based on drawings, photos and
recordings of the price of some historians, the panels in the museum
explains the four most popular theories:
(1) American Indians, (2) Phoenicians, (3) or Nordic Vikings and (4)
Explanations of the 4 theories in chronological order they were
presented to public.
Beside it is the Dighton Rock inscriptions modeled with the chalk for
The Portuguese theory was conceived in 1918 by Edmund Burke Delabarre,
psychologist at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, where
discovered to date 1511. "I saw it, clearly and undoubtedly, the date of
1511. Nobody to date has seen or detected in stone or in photography,
but once for its genuine presence can not be denied. "(December 2,
Portuguese symbols found in Dighton Rock
With the knowledge of the date of 1511, Delabarre researched the history
of Europe and found that there are in Lisbon, Portugal, Real Letters
stating that the navigator Corte Real had made a second trip to
America's North in 1501 and never returned to Portugal. Delabarre also
discovered the fact that Miguel Corte Real left Lisbon have on 10 May
1502, the search of his brother Gaspar, but Michael had the same fate
and never returned to Portugal.
In possession of knowledge of Portuguese history, reviewed all Delabarre
drawings, paintings and photographs made by several researchers since
1680 and said they were set in stone in Dighton:
(1) Date 1511
(2) Name of the Captain - Miguel Corte Real
(3) Portuguese Escudo in the form of "V" The center - the name of the
Captain. Miguel Corte Real
Date of 1511, with the number 5 in the form of S capital.
In 1951, José Fragoso Damasus (born in Sao Miguel, Azores) and Professor
of Portuguese at the University of New York, wrote an article revealing:
(1) the discovery of three Crosses of the Order of Christ, with the ends
in 45 degrees, and (2) Portuguese Shieds in the form of "U". In 1960,
after a thorough analysis of research done by Delabarre and Fragoso,
Manuel Luciano da Silva, a doctor in Bristol, Rhode Island, did a
statement in the First International Congress of Discovery, held in
Lisbon, Portugal where he revealed his discovery of the fourth Cross of
the Order of Christ and affirmed the conviction Theory Portuguese. Silva
made a comparative analysis of the inscriptions on the Stone of Dighton
America, with the inscriptions of other sensitive Portuguese Standards
Portuguese as the Stone of Yelala in Congo, Africa and the Stone of St.
Loureço in Siri Lanka, Asia. Da Silva concluded his presentation in
International Congress, so:
"The similarity between these patterns Portuguese so many thousands of
miles away from each other is very impressive. All recordings are with
the same coat of arms Portuguese, with the same Cross of the Order of
Christ and with the same style of figure. "
"All these standards were written by sailors who received the same
training and instruction in the School of Marine Infante D. Henry, in
Delabarre, Fragoso and Da Silva, each devoted more than thirty years of
their lives to investigate and set the Portuguese theory. Themselves
examined on the spot, often in the face of Dighton Rock, in times
different tidal, whether by day or by night with light Rasant. The
entries of the Dighton Rock should look up at night with light rasant or
tangential. We can not use the method of radioactive carbon 14, because
the Rock of Dighton has no protein. We have used the material
flourishing, with black light, infra-red, torch collimated,
liquinografia, sonogram, radiography, decals, analysis of neutron
activity, photometry stereotypical, 'laser beam' and finally know that
they can use computers to study the photographs in three dimensions with
light Rasant the face of the stone of Dighton. This is a technique
discovered by NASA in the study of photographs of the planet Mars.
But of all these methods, the simplest and most productive is without
doubt, the ring used with light at night. Were the engineers at Kodak in
Rocherster, New York, who taught us this. Only Portugal has a national
shield in the form of a "U" and a "V" and has a kind of cross be the
Cross of the Order of Christ to the ends at 45 degrees.
After examined the inscriptions at night with light Rasant see that the
recordings of the Dighton Rock are proof of the theory PRIMARY
Portuguese. It is from the inscriptions engraved in stone and not of
Dighton a "proof" that science can make the Portuguese theory .
(1) In Dighton Rock are recorded in four crosses of the Order of Christ,
with the ends at 45 degrees!
(2) In the Dighton Rock are recorded seven letters of the name Miguel
Corte Real. There is the history of the world any navigator with the
name of Miguel Corte Real, unless the Portuguese sailor.
(3) Are written in stone of the Dighton National Portuguese Shields in
the form of "U" and "V", unique among the 204 independent nations!
(4) Even the date of 1511 is recorded with the
characteristics Portuguese number of five hundred years: the number 5 is
written in form of an 'S' appears in capital letters as cathedrals,
churches and buildings Portuguese in the world in the sixteenth century.
In addition, Luciano da Silva gives secondary evidence such as influence
of English language among the Indians of New England, Portuguese
octagonal tower in Newport, the Portuguese fort of Ninigret, the
domestic animals in the Portuguese island of Sable (cattle) and the
Portuguese toponymy back in Eastern Canada and New England.
To prove that is not a single record of the Portuguese, said the famous
inscription of Ielala, by Diogo Cão in 1483, in its journey of
exploration of the river Zaire. Reached the mouth of the great river,
the navigator has admitted it is a crossing of the Atlantic Ocean to the
Indian and used the waterway for more than 150 kilometers. Held in the
insurmountable Ielala of fast and then left the mark of their presence,
with an inscription on a rock located in the left margin of river. It
was later that the explorers began to use the known patterns
In 1785 Lieutenant Colonel Pinheiro Furtado, commander of a mission of
recognition Portuguese, visit the Angra do Negro, (name of place which
later would be erected in the city's colonial Mocamedes English today,
city of Namibe in southern Angola republic) and note the inscriptions
written by pirates and seafarers in the soft rock.
(excerpts from some of Luciano Silva's texts )
Note to the close proximity between the locations of
the remains referenced, in account the large extent of coast of America
Menu | Travels to West
Newport Tower - today
The Newport Tower, located in Touro Park (Newport, Rhode
Island), the structure is considered more enigmatic that the United
States. Many scholars in America and the abroad have written about their
probable builders. All agree that it was not built by American Indians.
Its show features a European style or the next East.
The Tower is located at 41 degrees and 27 minutes north latitude at the
point highest in the peninsula that forms the city of Newport. The tower
was built about half a mile both east and west of lines the coast of the
city. Its panoramic view dominates all entries Delta or Narragansett Bay
The Newport Tower is a cylindrical structure with an external diameter
7m and 7.5m high. It has eight round columns or pillars of 2.2 to
height. Columns 1 and 5 are located in a real North-South line guided by
the Polar Star. Each column is based on a base with a circumference of
3.6m. The columns are connected by 8 round arches, forming a "U"
inverted giving the idea of a romantic style. Above the arches there are
three main windows. The first window, 70 degrees east-northeast, faces
Easton Point and the mouth of the Sakonnet River. A second window is
located to the south, facing the Atlantic Ocean. A third window to the
west, facing the port Newport Tower -- news of Newport and the entrance
to Narragansett Bay. Inside, the tower has 7 small niche and a
"fireplace in room" built into the wall. At the top of each column,
within and between the arches, there are plugins to make triangular
The Tower is composed of laminated shale, pebble and mortar.
Inside the tower
This is made of sand, fine gravel and lime from the shells marine or
limestone. All these materials are indigenous and can to be in the
vicinity. The coast is only 800 meters away from distance Octagonal
The round arch is an architectural form, appears first in Middle East.
The Byzantine architects (Century IV - After Christ) began to build
towers from four sides, gradually evolving to the octagonal shape and
circular towers built in order to support the domes of the churches.
Since then, both the circular forms, such as have been used alternately
octagonal, serving the same function architectural. Both styles were
adopted by Christianity. A Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
(built in 330 DC), which contains the tomb of Christ, has a circular
The Templars prayed at the altar of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
When return from the Crusades to their countries (XII
century) introduced in Europe circular and octagonal churches. The
towers were circular initially used as media of domes, which symbolized
the stars or the firmament. Soon, however, we used the same style in
construction of guard towers of the medieval castles. There are many
churches in Europe circular and octagonal, but most part is in southern
Europe. The secret of the Newport Tower is one of these circular
structures built by European Templars.
There are some theories about who will build the tower.
Charolais Church in Tomar - Templar -Portugal
It seems more than certain that this is due to some
people of European Age Average.
Herbert Pell, former U.S. Ambassador to Portugal (father of former
Senator Claiborne Pell Federal) in 1948, was the first to make the
direct association between the Newport Tower and the main tower or
Charolais the Castle of Tomar. He stressed that the Portuguese have
always been good bricklayers and said: "Even today his favorite form of
construction is to use small stones embedded in cement, "method used in
the Newport Tower.
Pell should notice that the Portuguese during the discoveries using the
same method in the construction of over 150 castles and churches along
the African coast in the Far East (Ceylon, Japan, India) and Brazil. No
European country has, in many lands distant, more churches and castles
with towers and circulars of the octagon to Portugal. Indeed, the flag
of Portugal is unique in the world that has seven castles with arches
were in the "U" reversed, similar to the arcs the Tower of Newport!
Even if we consider the Tower of Newport as a windmill, Portugal is
country in Europe that has largest number of windmills.
The Netherlands has five hundred mills and Portugal have had more than
The construction of the Newport Tower was a huge undertaking if consider
the availability of material and labor. Only one reason very strong, a
very strong faith in God, that could have inspired the their
manufacturers. We must not forget that throughout the mainland Portugal
there are dozens of churches that have octagonal or circular towers! But
many of these churches existed before the Royal Court to come to
America. Certainly the circular and octagonal churches could serve as
prototypes for construction of the Newport Tower by Portuguese sailors.
There is evidence to indicate with certainty they Miguel Corte Real and
his crew built the Tower of Newport for use as church-tower-to-watch, as
the anticipation that the older brother of Miguel, Vasqueanes Corte
Real, come on your demand, as Miguel had come to search for Gaspar.
It is imperative for those who wish to study the Newport Tower
Portuguese history of the Templars. This organization of Knights, which
was during the Crusades to Jerusalem under the leadership of its Grand
Master Gualdim Pais, built in 1160, the Castle of Tomar with its
Charolais feature or Altar-mor.
Religious and political intrigue by Pope Clement V in
1308, in conspiracy with the King of France Filipe Belo, abolished all
the Templars in Europe through the papal bull "in Regrans Coeli." But in
Portugal the King Dinis, a master of maneuver, to obtain a Bula "and Ad
Exquibus "of Pope John XXI, 14 March 1319, changing the name of Templars
to the Order of Christ, maintaining however the same knights and the
same properties. And in 1418 the Infante D. Henry has become
Administrator of this order which left a lot of money to pay the
Portuguese discoveries. And so the Knights of the Order of Christ become
brave sailors of the high seas, leading to the Cross Order of Christ to
spread in all oceans. And the Corte Real also were members of the
Order of Christ, or the old Templars in Portugal.
Radioactive carbon .
In 1993 a group of scientists from Denmark, headed by Jorge Siemonsen,
came to Newport to collect small samples of 28 mortar of the Tower of
Newport to determine by the method of coal radioactive age the
construction of the tower. This technique is very sophisticated, since
measuring the radioactivity of carbon dioxide from coal air that is
mixed into the mortar where the workers were to build the tower. It is
as if the carbon dioxide could then be now a sort of "witness" the act
of building the tower, the tell us your age! After several months, these
scientists have shown that their studies concluded that the Newport
Tower was not built for the Vikings or Scandinavian, or by Benedict
Arnold. They said that the Tower of Newport must have been built around
1500, with an error of about 50 years, thus coinciding with the voyage
of Miguel Corte Real in 1502
Menu | Travels to West
Ruins of Fort Ninigret
The ruins of a mysterious and strong construction
unknown, near the Bay of Narragansett (USA), raise suspicions of it is a
construction made by Portuguese sailors after some of his secret trips
to the west. American historians have found the Fort Ninigret with a
configuration bastions of 5 side very unusual. However, this conclusion
can only did not happen in Portugal Strong knowledge of and built by
during the Portuguese discoveries. Analyzing these strengths can be
found that the strong Portuguese consist of 4.5 or 6 bastions side.
It is easily to know, the gun, found near the fortress,
has become obsolete from 1540. Why think that this gun was due to
British and Dutch settlers.
The more objects that are similar to the gun and sword, found in
vicinity of the fortress, who are in the Rhode Island Historical
Society, in Providence, are the objects of sec. XV and XVI, which are
military in Lisbon. Looking at the paintings for the Chinese and
Japanese travel to the Portuguese East, noticed a great similarity
between the swords. Fort Ninigret with other archaeological records
entered, the show of Narragansett Bay as a record of the history of
In the Mount Esperança or Mount Hope in Bristol, Rhode
Island, which was the local headquarters of the Wampanoags Indians who
Portuguese names and used more than sixty words Portuguese, some
features were Western (descendants of navigators).
Menu | Travels to West
The Discovery of Australia attaches itself officially, to
the Dutch and English. However, there are several maps, with dates
before those discoveries, which is that Australia, with some variant of
the name "Java" or simply to cut the coastline drawn on these maps.
The facts presented here, show that the first European contacts with the
territory have been made by the Portuguese. Although no historical
records in the archives (as is normal in the most important journeys
undertaken by the Portuguese), were more diverse and evidence of the
event these journeys. Were 3, the travel can be done and have come to
Australian land. Diogo Pacheco in 1520, Christopher de Mendonca in 1522
and Gomes Sequeira in 1525.
Diogo Pacheco was the son of the famous navigator and explorer
Duarte Pacheco Pereira. According to reports from João de Barros and
Manuel de Faria and Sousa, Diogo departed from Malacca in 1519 (possibly
with the task of find the land of gold mentioned by Marco Polo,
and confirmed by inhabitants of those islands) in the southeast
direction. After several calls at various ports is reported that the
ships were in waters low and that a beach is attacked and killed
Pacheco. Joao de Barros states that "Diogo was the first of us to lose a
life to discover the Island of Gold. "
Later Manuel de Faria e Sousa says "Diogo Pacheco lost his life with
many others in a wreck while he did research with two ships on the
Island of Gold.
Later Manuel de Faria e Sousa says "Diogo Pacheco lost
his life with many others in a wreck while he did research with two
ships in the Island of Gold".
The reports of these two chroniclers, though separated by
time, go to meeting of some aspects of the trip as the two boats used
and the battle on the beach. The beach should be somewhere in Napier
Broome Bay, because, if we go to southeast from Malacca, as reported,
this is the area where is Australian. Precisely that area in 1916 found
two cannons, which then of tested, it was concluded that they were
used in caravels and ships. One of them has a mark and crown rosette
of Portuguese ...
Other evidence suggests that the presence of "strangers" in that area of
Australian territory is the fact that in 1838, south of Napier Broome
Bay, in Kimberley, have been found in a cave a picture of what
seems this is a priest, because of the elongated robes and a
hood. In Wandjinas found another picture, this time for something that
seems with a soldier.
On another voyage, Christopher de Mendonca in 1522, after the
"failure" journey of Diogo Pacheco, the king Manuel, knowing the
preparation of the voyage of Magellan, has ordered a new trip to the
"Land of Gold. "The columnist said that Portuguese Cristóvão de Mendonça
was charge of this mission. The chronicles speak of voyages by islands
of spices in 1521. Then the name Mendonça disappears from reports,
appearing again in 1527 on a trip to Portugal for Ormuz! There is no
reason for Mendonca has not met the mission it was delivered in 1521.
The lack of registration has yet to meet the policy implemented by
Portugal, to hide the records of the maximum their trips.
The great "proof" of the course followed by Mendonça is a set of maps
... known as Atlas Vallard!
This Atlas is in the Huntigton Library, San Marino, Los Angeles. The
name comes from Nicolas Vallard, a businessman, and is composed of 15
maps drawn on parchment.
Is proven, and accepted that these statements were made to maps from the
Portuguese in century XVI. Are identified numerous toponyms of
Portuguese origin, referring to the characteristics of the coast. It is
not known yet as the original was to France
where this was prepared. Since its establishment, the maps went through
several owners until it was purchased in 1924 by an English antiquarian,
Thomas Phillips. Its content reflects virtually the entire world known
at the time and has the particularity of being targeted in the South top
of the leaves. All areas in the coastline are recognized, but the area
called "Terra Java" some areas are identified with Australia in the area
of Quensland least, when the coast is directed to the east ...
This is due to an error of the breeding map from the
originals, which were separated, which add to the maps to order the land
known, made the union of form they seemed appropriate. Rearranging the
map of this area, Australia appears even more evident! In addition to
cutting the coast this statement be almost the same as a current
Australian map, the terms of Coastal accidents, transcripts reflect
Portuguese terms used to appoint such accidents in various locations
operated by the Portuguese in world. A great example of the
characteristics of the coast is being faithful to the current the case
of the Ningaloo reef, western coast of Australia. This huge reef of
coral in Vallard map is referenced in almost the same place now ... a
warning to the ships!
Other tests are for example, the name
given and recorded by George Robinson, in 1838, when it came to call
today Bittangabee Bay, the name he registered was Pettungerbe, fact,
that name had been pronounced by the aborigines. However, if we consider
that the end of the word is-be, sound native to the definition given by
"place", and leaving
Pettunger, the sound of this word is very similar to ...
Portugal! Added to this is the detail of the clan Aborigine living on
the coast near the bay be called in times latest from ... Katungal!
Another single detail in this tribe, for all the other coastal tribes,
is the registration of building vessels and strong ... with sail!
In 1795 a British colonial described an aboriginal, with an aspect
diferent. Was lower, more muscular and had good skills of fighting.
This member of the aboriginal tribe was not sure it would be a
descendant of Portuguese crew member who dock in Australia.
In 1930, Bernard Ryder went to the King Sound in the Buccaneer
Archipelago. After contact with Aboriginal noted that these terms had
different language and then to record the sounds (which were related
objects or things) it was found that words were Portuguese! Eg
água (=water), oombooroo (= shoulder).
These facts "prove" possible stops on the Australian coast, the Travel
Christopher Mendonca, upon its record of cartographic coast.
To complete the registration of Peter Heylyn, the English
geographer century XVII wrote in Cosmographie (London 1656), which the Portuguese
found the land "Psittacorum Earth" and earth "Beach" (Land with
On the map Vallard beyond the eastern
Australian coast is a large island of bizarre appearance.
Indeed at first sight of their shape, and location, it seems that island
has not to do with New Zealand, but correcting the orientation of the
map, and measuring the distances, there is that island located in the
same location on the maps today!
For the cut of the coast at first sight this is not similar to any
island of New Zealand. However, as we see in figure to the side, the
comparison between the current map of the north island and the island
Vallard the map, the similarities are
Were also found archaeological evidence of the presence of navigators
In sec. XIX was found a helmet in medieval-Renaissance time in
Port of Wellington. Listed as being of European origin, as could go
there to stop such an object? Some years later, after removal of sand in
the sea, near Wellington, was a pill of iron also dated the sec.
An old story told by an elder of the area of Marlborough Sounds,
the arrival of a boat with large sails, which the men wore armor, swords
and spears. It also happened clashes that with these men and had
different aspects. Some were white and more that blacks themselves.
A curious fact is that in a letter to British shipping from 1817, the
Cook Straits in New Zealand, is registered the name
"Gulf of Portuguese 1550 "and is below a note that says" known
... the Portuguese since 1550. "
When Abel Tasman was sent to those waters 150 years later, was recorded
in a logbook that were in "latitude and longitude in the mapping of
the Portuguese ... "
Menu | Travels to West
Why is still so much talk of this character in our days
...? The main reason was that it was he who showed the world as travel
and return to a place which was given the name New World ... Another
reason is that until now could not confirm the nationality this
During the first years of that record the life of Christopher Columbus,
this one has several trips on Portuguese vessels. In 1479 Colombus
married Filipa Moniz, Commander of the Order of Santiago, whose father,
Bartholomew Perestrelo, of Portuguese descent Piacenza of Italy, was one
of the settlers, and captain of the donee of Porto Santo island, in the
archipelago of Madeira, Portugal, where Columbus lived also. Union gave
a son who was born in 1480, Diogo Colombus. It was a widower in 1485
lived in Castile, where he was lover in widow, Beatriz de Enríquez who
had a son in 1488, Fernando Colombus.
Colombus offered their
services to the kings of Castile to reach the India by West. In 1492
Columbus reached the "Indies" (Columbus had reached the Caribbean
islands). Whenever there was a puzzle about the naturalness of the
Almirant. Some years after his death appeared a testament, which thinks
be false, where claims to be of Genoa - Italy. In life, there are no
concrete records that affirm this. His testament has many
characteristics to have been falsified. Here are some topics showing a
Christopher Columbus of Portuguese ...
Some of the following
facts were based on reading the book: The Mystery of Columbus revealed
by Manuel Rosa, as well a collection of we selected several sources, and
citations from the several sources.
The first document referring to Christopher Columbus
in Spain, is a document of 5 May 1487 of a payment made to
Christopher Columbus foreign.
He married a Portuguese noblewoman, something
unlikely for a foreign trader.
Appeared to have scientific knowledge, and spoke more
than one language, something unlikely for a weaver.
Not only has this theoretical training but also
participated in travels in the secret service of the Portuguese
Crown in the entire Atlantic Ocean, taking little time access to
secret information of the Portuguese State, becoming intimate friend
of the king. Even the tables that he used in his 1st. Trip to
America (1492-1493) had just been made in Portugal and constitute
the most advanced that the world had.
When Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, returned from his trip
to the Cape of Good Hope, though he was four years ago in Spain,
moved to Lisbon to attend the arrival, talk to the king, study
league the league followed the route, etc.. This trip was kept
secret by Portuguese chroniclers of the time, their knowledge was to
due to the Columbus.
Columbus wrote in Portuguese or Spanish (winth
portuguese words), never in Italian or Latin.
In 21 years who lived in Castile / Spain, was never
identified as Italian or Genoese, the same happened with the two
Christopher Columbus when it was sent to Castile as
the informant canon Portuguese Fernando Martins.
Toscanelli in correspondence with Christopher
Columbus, said: "I surprising, therefore, for these and many other
things on issue could still say, you, you are providing a very great
soul, and noble Portuguese nation, where all time has always been so
ennoble the most heroic made so many illustrious men, has so much
interest in that travel is perform. "
Signatures of Christopher Columbus
Lorosano Jurisconsult Spanish referred to Colombus as "such
a that claim be Lusitanian "
Pleyto The Priority of the 1532, the children of Pinzón, two
witnesses, Hernán Alonso Fine Amacher and said to Christopher
Columbus as "the infante of Portugal. "
President of the Royal Society of Geography (in that time)
Ricardo Beltrán Rózpide said: "the discoverer of America is not from
Genova and come from some place of Spanish land en la zone located
west of the Peninsula between the cables Ortegal and San Vicente. "
correspondence with D. John II, this refers to Colombus as my
faithful friend (a little strange if João II had refused their
Castile, Christopher Columbus was always known as Portuguese (in
Chapter 2 of the payment counter-mor January 1486, it drew
"Portuguese" twice, but the name was left blank.
Countess of Lemos wrote in a letter that he was his nephew, letter
rewritten by D Duarte de Almeida (Perestrelo) to John III.
Stay time of Christopher Columbus in Portugal, with time to talk and
the details of the trip, with John II, on his return from America,
drawing on, to see some of his family. (spent several days in
Portugal before communicating the "big news to the kings of
Various names given to the lands discovered by them, with Portuguese
origin (to say that there was only one Cuba in the world before
Columbus perform the journey, the town in Alentejo-Portugal)
Titles of Christopher Columbus, after death, were given to the
descendants of the Portuguese crown and not the Italians.
There are many more "evidence" that can be found
Menu | Travels to West